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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Calvaria ; Mineralization ; Calcium ; Phosphorus ; Apatite ; Atomic-force microscopy ; Transmission electron microscopy ; Rat (Sprague Dawley)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) aid the acquisition of detailed structural information on the process of hard tissue formation. The sutural mineralization of rat calvaria is taken as a model for a collagen-related mineralization system. After cryofixation or chemical fixation an anhydrous tissue preparation technique with no staining procedures is used. The atomic-force microscope and the transmission electron microscope are used for structural analysis of the mineralizing region of the sutural tissue. With the application of AFM the collagen macroperiod is shown to be well represented in the unmineralized sutural tissue. At the mineralization front the collagen fibrils are found to be thickened and to change to a characteristic stacked platelet structure. Using TEM the macroperiod is faintly visible before mineral crystallites have formed and is more prominent after the apatite crystallization has started in the fibrils. In this step a needle-like structure of the newly formed apatitic crystals is visible.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Hydroxyalkenoic acids ; Hydrogen bonds ; Crystal engineering ; Molecular assemblies ; Scanning force microscopy ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The substituted 6-hydroxy-trans-3-hexenoic acids 2-4 have been prepared by a template coupling reaction between (butadiene)zirconocene, W(CO)6, and cyclobutanone, cyclodecanone, or cyclododecanone, respectively, followed by hydrolytic/oxidative demetallation of the resulting metallacyclic zirconoxycarbene tungsten complexes. The hydroxyalkenoic acids 2-4 have been found to form two novel fundamental types of associated supramolecular structural arrays in the solid state through intermolecular hydrogen bonding, which have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The cyclobutanone-derived compound 2 exhibits an infinitely extending sheet-like structure, which is composed of symmetrically alternating interconnected 12- and 36-membered rings, each being constructed from the functional groups or frameworks of four individual molecules of 2. In contrast, the cyclodecanone-derived compound 3 adopts a ribbon-type structure composed of C2-symmetrically arranged symmetry-equivalent 15-membered rings, each containing the functionalities from three individual molecules of 2. On the basis of scanning force microscopy studies, the cyclododecanone-derived compound 4 would appear to have a similar structure in the solid state. The structural features of the molecular assemblies that are formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonding of compounds 2-4 in the solid state are selectively controlled by the size and favoured conformations of the spiro-anellated carbocyclic rings at C6 of the 6-hydroxy-trans-3-hexenoic acid carbon chain.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1022-1336
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A new approach for the fabrication of a multilayer film assembly is explored, which is based on the alternating assembling of poly(4-vinylpyridine) and poly(acrylic acid) via hydrogen bonding. The homogeneous multilayer films were characterized by UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The nature of interaction between the two polymers is identified as hydrogen bonding by IR spectroscopy.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary The structure of a self-organized polymer film prepared by slow evaporation of organic solvents is studied by atomic force microscopy, and compared with that of polymer film prepared by natural evaporation of organic solvents. AFM studies clearly indicates that there exists a self-organizing process of alkyl chains resulting in the partial interdigitated layer structure under the condition of slow evaporation of organic solvents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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