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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-04
    Description: Global warming is already affecting the oceans through changes in water temperature, acidification, oxygen content and sea level rise, amongst many others. These changes are having multiple effects on marine species worldwide, with subsequent impacts on marine fisheries, peoples' livelihoods and food security. This work presents a review of the recent literature on the current and projected impacts of climate change on Canada's Pacific marine ecosystem. We find that there is an increasing number of studies in British Columbia focusing on changes in ocean conditions and marine species responses under climate change, including an emerging literature on the socio-economic impacts of these changes considered to be a knowledge gap. According to the literature, it is well established that ocean temperatures are increasing over the long-term, especially, in southern areas of British Columbia. Warming trends are increasing in the spring and are strongest in summer. However, there are important uncertainties regarding other climate drivers, such as oxygen concentration and acidification, stemming mainly from the insufficiency of data. Pacific salmon, elasmobranchs, invertebrates and rockfishes are amongst the most vulnerable species groups to climate change in British Columbia. Also, shifts in stock distribution and fish abundance under climate change may have a significant impact on fish supply affecting the livelihoods and food security of some British Columbians. The magnitude of these impacts is likely to vary according to a latitudinal gradient, with southern coastal areas being more affected than northern and central areas; challenging multiple areas of governance, such as equity and fishing access amongst First Nations; and institutional arrangements for transboundary stocks between the U.S. and Canada.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-23
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a set of consistent, multi-sector, multi-scale climate-impact simulations, based on scientifically and politically-relevant historical and future scenarios. This framework serves as a basis for robust projections of climate impacts, as well as facilitating model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. It also provides a unique opportunity to consider interactions between climate change impacts across sectors.ISIMIP2a is the second ISIMIP simulation round, focusing on historical simulations (1971-2010) of climate impacts on agriculture, fisheries, permafrost, biomes, regional and global water and forests. This will serve as a basis for model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming.The focus topic for ISIMIP2a is model evaluation and validation, in particular with respect to the representation of impacts of extreme weather events and climate variability. During this phase, four common global observational climate data sets were provided across all impact models and sectors. In addition, appropriate observational data sets of impacts for each sector were collected, against which the models can be benchmarked. Access to the input data for the impact models is provided through a central ISIMIP archive (see https://www.isimip.org/gettingstarted/#input-data-bias-correction).This entry refers to the ISIMIP2a simulation data from fisheries & marine ecosystems (regional) models: Atlantis (Southeastern Australia) EwE (Adriatic Sea), EwE (Baltic Sea), EwE (Catalan Sea or NW Mediterranean Sea), EwE (Cook Strait, New Zealand), EwE (East Bass Strait, Australia), EwE (Mediterranean Sea), EwE (North Sea), OSMOSE (Northern Humboldt).
    Description: Methods
    Description: The ISIMIP2a Fisheries & Marine Ecosystems (Fish-MIP; regional) outputs are based on simulations from 9 regional fisheries & marine ecosystems models (see listing) according to the ISIMIP2a protocol (https://www.isimip.org/protocol/#isimip2a). The models simulate total ecosystem biomass, total consumer biomass, biomass by different size classes, and fisheries catches based on prescribed input fields information. A more detailed description of the models and model-specific amendments of the protocol are available here: https://www.isimip.org/impactmodels/.
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
    Format: 1 Files
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-23
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a set of consistent, multi-sector, multi-scale climate-impact simulations, based on scientifically and politically-relevant historical and future scenarios. This framework serves as a basis for robust projections of climate impacts, as well as facilitating model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. It also provides a unique opportunity to consider interactions between climate change impacts across sectors.ISIMIP2a is the second ISIMIP simulation round, focusing on historical simulations (1971-2010) of climate impacts on agriculture, fisheries, permafrost, biomes, regional and global water and forests. This will serve as a basis for model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming.The focus topic for ISIMIP2a is model evaluation and validation, in particular with respect to the representation of impacts of extreme weather events and climate variability. During this phase, four common global observational climate data sets were provided across all impact models and sectors. In addition, appropriate observational data sets of impacts for each sector were collected, against which the models can be benchmarked. Access to the input data for the impact models is provided through a central ISIMIP archive (see https://www.isimip.org/gettingstarted/#input-data-bias-correction).This entry refers to the ISIMIP2a simulation data from six global fisheries & marine ecosystems (global) models: APECOSM, BOATS, DBEM, DBPM, EcoOcean, Macroecological (Jennings) model.
    Description: Methods
    Description: The ISIMIP2a Fisheries & Marine Ecosystems (Fish-MIP; global) outputs are based on simulations from 6 global fisheries & marine ecosystems models (see listing) according to the ISIMIP2a protocol (https://www.isimip.org/protocol/#isimip2a). The models simulate total ecosystem biomass, total consumer biomass, biomass by different size classes, and fisheries catches based on prescribed input fields. A more detailed description of the models and model-specific amendments of the protocol are available here: https://www.isimip.org/impactmodels/.
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
    Format: 1 Files
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-11-07
    Description: The term ‘Blue Economy’ is increasingly used in various marine sectors and development frameworks. For it to be a truly useful approach, however, we argue that social benefits and equity must be explicitly prioritized alongside environmental and economic concerns. This integration of social dimensions within the Blue Economy is required to ensure that marine economic sectors contribute to achieving sustainable development goals. We review what an equity-focused ‘Blue Economy’ might mean for some established and emergent marine sectors and note existing guidelines that may be used for incorporating these aspects into planning. Moving towards a Blue Economy does not only imply developing emerging sectors in undeveloped areas; larger challenges will be found in transforming industries that already have significant economic and livelihood contributions despite concurrent social and environmental concerns. A ‘marine industrial revolution’—as the Blue Economy has sometimes been understood—cannot achieve sustainable development and well-being if it does not avoid the widespread negative social and ecological impacts of historical development pathways. A concerted effort is therefore necessary to design and implement inclusive and equitable policies as an integral part of a Blue Economy that is transformative and not only expansive.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-04-10
    Description: We study the effects of providing subsidies to the fisheries in small island developing states (SIDS), where fisheries are important to both the food security and livelihoods of the populations. By analyzing data on current and potential catch and computing the potential catch losses from the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of SIDS, we find that, collectively, SIDS have currently overfished their waters to the extent that their current catch is just under 50 per cent of the maximum catch potential. This catch loss results in direct and indirect food security impacts in terms of losses in healthy, varied and nutrient-rich food, revenues, incomes and economic impacts in SIDS. Our results also demonstrate that capacity-enhancing subsidies contribute to overfishing while the effect of good subsidies is unclear and needs further analysis.
    Print ISSN: 1355-770X
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-4395
    Topics: Economics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-12-04
    Print ISSN: 1354-1013
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2486
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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