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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mammalian genome 8 (1997), S. 697-698 
    ISSN: 1432-1777
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 27, no. 2 (2014): 138-150, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2014.49.
    Description: Increasing public awareness that the Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest is capable of great earthquakes (magnitude 9 and greater) motivates the Cascadia Initiative, an ambitious onshore/offshore seismic and geodetic experiment that takes advantage of an amphibious array to study questions ranging from megathrust earthquakes, to volcanic arc structure, to the formation, deformation and hydration of the Juan De Fuca and Gorda Plates. Here, we provide an overview of the Cascadia Initiative, including its primary science objectives, its experimental design and implementation, and a preview of how the resulting data are being used by a diverse and growing scientific community. The Cascadia Initiative also exemplifies how new technology and community-based experiments are opening up frontiers for marine science. The new technology—shielded ocean bottom seismometers—is allowing more routine investigation of the source zone of megathrust earthquakes, which almost exclusively lies offshore and in shallow water. The Cascadia Initiative offers opportunities and accompanying challenges to a rapidly expanding community of those who use ocean bottom seismic data.
    Description: The Cascadia Initiative is supported by the National Science Foundation; the CIET is supported under grants OCE- 1139701, OCE-1238023, OCE‐1342503, OCE-1407821, and OCE-1427663 to the University of Oregon.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Indoor air 5 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0668
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Medicine
    Notes: A registry-based case-control study, involving 120 cases (28 males, 92 females) of lung cancer deaths, was conducted in 1985 in the city of Guangzhou to investigate whether lifestyle factors are associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer in never-smoking individuals. The cases were matched with two control groups which consisted of non-respiratory-disease-related deaths or non-respiratory-related cancer deaths. Lifestyle factors assessed in the study include: personal history of nonmalignant respiratory diseases, practice of fresh vegetable consumption, lifetime occupation and occupational exposure histories, exposure to ETS, degree of indoor air pollution, general conditions of home residence, cooking practices and environments, and family history of cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated a negative association between fresh vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk in both sexes, suggesting that vegetables may exert a “protective” effect against lung cancer in humans. In males, elevated risks were found between lung cancer and occupational exposure. In females, indoor air pollution and kitchen environment were associated with risk of lung cancer. No statistically significant association was observed between lung cancer and all other factors examined, including exposure to ETS. A second case-control study was performed in 1986 to investigate the possible association between spousal smoking and lung cancer deaths. Cases consisted of 75 never-smoking females and the two control groups consisted of 128 cases of deaths due to non-tumor diseases, and 126 cases of deaths due to tumors except lung cancer. When cases were matched against “death-unrelated-to-tumor” controls, the odds ratio [OR] for ETS exposure was 1.19, as gauged by whether or not there was ETS exposure; 0.72 and 1.62, when ETS was assessed based on exposure to less than 20 or to 20 or more cigarettes/day. When ETS exposure was measured by “smokingyears”, ORs of 1.39 and 1.17 were obtained based on less than or equal to 30 years of exposure, respectively. Matching cases against “tumor-other-than-lung cancer” controls show the following: OR was 1.00 based or whether or not there was ETS exposure, 0.62 and 1.36, based on exposure to less than 20 or to 20 or more cigarettes/day, and 1.13 and 0.99, based on less than or equal to 30 years of exposure. In all cases, Ors and the calculated 95% confidence interval [CI] indices show that ETS exposure was not significantly associated with female lung cancer deaths, P〉0.05.In summary, both case-control studies suggest no statistically significant association between exposure to ETS and female lung cancer in this Chinese population.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 1001: A Supervised Event-Based Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring for Non-Linear Appliances Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10041001 Authors: Zhuang Zheng Hainan Chen Xiaowei Luo Smart meters generate a massive volume of energy consumption data which can be analyzed to recover some interesting and beneficial information. Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) is one important application fostered by the mass deployment of smart meters. This paper presents a supervised event-based NILM approach for non-linear appliance activities identification. Firstly, the additive properties (stating that, when a certain amount of specific appliances’ feature is added to their belonging network, an equal amount of change in the network’s feature can be observed) of three features (harmonic feature, voltage–current trajectory feature, and active–reactive–distortion (PQD) power curve features) were investigated through experiments. The results verify the good additive property for the harmonic features and Voltage–Current (U-I) trajectory features. In contrast, PQD power curve features have a poor additive property. Secondly, based on the verified additive property of harmonic current features and the representation of waveforms, a harmonic current features based approach is proposed for NILM, which includes two main processes: event detection and event classification. For event detection, a novel model is proposed based on the Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm. Compared to other event detectors, the proposed event detector not only can detect both event timestamp and two adjacent steady states but also shows high detection accuracy over public dataset with F1-score up to 98.99%. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) classifiers are then built for multi-class event classification using the harmonic current features and are trained using the data collected from the laboratory and the public dataset. The results show that the MLP classifiers have a good performance in classifying non-linear loads. Finally, the proposed harmonic current features based approach is tested in the laboratory through experiments, in which multiple on–off events of multiple appliances occur. The research indicates that clustering-based event detection algorithms are promising for future works in event-based NILM. Harmonic current features have perfect additive property, and MLP classifier using harmonic current features can accurately identify typical non-linear and resistive loads, which could be integrated with other approaches in the future.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-01
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 415: A Rotational Gyroscope with a Water-Film Bearing Based on Magnetic Self-Restoring Effect Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020415 Authors: Dianzhong Chen Xiaowei Liu Haifeng Zhang Hai Li Rui Weng Ling Li Wanting Rong Zhongzhao Zhang Stable rotor levitation is a challenge for rotational gyroscopes (magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSG) and electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (ESG)) with a ring- or disk-shaped rotor, which restricts further improvement of gyroscope performance. In addition, complicated pick-up circuits and feedback control electronics propose high requirement on fabrication technology. In the proposed gyroscope, a ball-disk shaped rotor is supported by a water-film bearing, formed by centrifugal force to deionized water at the cavity of the lower supporting pillar. Water-film bearing provides stable mechanical support, without the need for complicated electronics and control system for rotor suspension. To decrease sliding friction between the rotor ball and the water-film bearing, a supherhydrophobic surface (SHS) with nano-structures is fabricated on the rotor ball, resulting in a rated spinning speed increase of 12.4% (under the same driving current). Rotor is actuated by the driving scheme of brushless direct current motor (BLDCM). Interaction between the magnetized rotor and the magnetic-conducted stator produces a sinusoidal rotor restoring torque, amplitude of which is proportional to the rotor deflection angle inherently. Utilization of this magnetic restoring effect avoids adding of a high amplitude voltage for electrostatic feedback, which may cause air breakdown. Two differential capacitance pairs are utilized to measure input angular speeds at perpendicular directions of the rotor plane. The bias stability of the fabricated gyroscope is as low as 0.5°/h.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Under the condition of ultra-low emission for power plants, the particulate matter concentration is significantly lower than that of typical power plants a decade ago, which posed new challenges for the particulate matter monitoring of stationary emission. The monitoring of particulate matter mass concentration based on ensemble light scattering has been found affected by particle size. Thus, this study develops a method of using the scattering angular distribution to obtain the real-time particle size, and then correct the particulate matter concentration with the real-time measured particle size. In this study, a real-time aerosol concentration and particle size measurement setup is constructed with a fixed detector at the forward direction and a rotating detector. The mass concentration is measured by the fixed detector, and the particle size is measured from the intensity ratio of the two detectors. The simulations show that the particle size has power law functionality with the angular spacing of the ripple structure according to Mie theory. Four quartz aerosols with different particle size are tested during the experiment, and the particle size measured from the ripple width is compared with the mass median size measured by an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Both techniques have the same measurement tendency, and the measurement deviation by the ripple width method compared with ELPI is less than 15%. Finally, the measurement error of the real-time mass concentration is reduced from 38% to 18% with correction of the simultaneously measured particle size when particle size has changed.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: The rapid growth of crop yield in China was maintained by more fossil fuel inputs in the past years, causing concern about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to crop production. Therefore, this study analyzed historical dynamics of carbon footprint (CF) of 11 major crops in China during 2000–2016 and estimated possible GHG emissions of the system in 2020 under different scenarios. Results indicated that the GHG emissions of the Chinese crop system increased by 20.07% from 2000 to 2016, in which the grain crops contributed to more than 80% of the total emissions. The GHG emissions from grain crops including maize, wheat, and rice as well as sugar crops including sugarcane and sugar beet were increased by 28.07% and 14.27% in the study period, respectively, making up the primary factor of increased GHG emissions of crop system in China. Moreover, if the cropping pattern and agricultural practices is not improved in the future, the GHG emissions from Chinese crop system are estimated to increase by 346.19 million tons in 2020. If advanced agricultural policies and practices are implemented, the GHGs emissions of crop system in China in 2020 are estimated to be 2.92–12.62% lower than that in 2016. Overall, this study illustrated that the crop system in China contributed to the growth of GHG emissions in China over the past decades. Improving utilization efficiency of fertilizers and crop structure in China are the most important ways to reduce GHG emissions from the Chinese crop system.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: To date, rotating mirror (RM) cameras still serve as indispensable imaging equipment for the diagnosis of microsecond transient processes due to their excellent characteristics. This paper, for upgrading the optical information capacity of the cameras, presents the new optical acceleration principle to increase the framing frequency or scanning velocity, the new design theory without principle errors instead of the classical theories with some flaws in principle to have applied to design our simultaneous streak and framing rotating mirror camera with continuous access, and the new rotating mirror with novel structure, made of an aluminum alloy, to have considerably reduced lateral deformation of the RM and improved the performance of the camera.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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