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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A time-accurate, coupled solution procedure is described for the chemical nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes equations over a wide range of Mach numbers. This method employs the strong conservation form of the governing equations, but uses primitive variables as unknowns. Real gas properties and equilibrium chemistry are considered. Numerical tests include steady convergent-divergent nozzle flows with air dissociation/recombination chemistry, dump combustor flows with n-pentane-air chemistry, nonreacting flow in a model double annular combustor, and nonreacting unsteady driven cavity flows. Numerical results for both the steady and unsteady flows demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the present algorithm for Mach numbers ranging from the incompressible limit to supersonic speeds.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3639
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Advanced technologies applicable to solar thermal electric power systems in the 1990-200 time-frame are delineated for power applications that fulfill a wide spectrum of small power needs with primary emphasis on power ratings less than 10MWe. Projections of power system characteristics (energy and capital costs as a function of capacity factor) are made based on development of identified promising technologies and are used as the basis for comparing technology development options and combinations of these options to determine developmental directions offering potential for significant improvements. Stirling engines, Brayton/Rankine combined cycles and storage/transport concepts encompassing liquid metals, and reversible-reaction chemical systems are considered for two-axis tracking systems such as the central receiver or power tower concept and distributed parabolic dish receivers which can provide efficient low-cost solar energy collection while achieving high temperatures for efficient energy conversion. Pursuit of advanced technology across a broad front can result in post-1985 solar thermal systems having the potential of approaching the goal of competitiveness with conventional power systems.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/JPL-1060-4 , NASA-CR-158519 , JPL-PUB-79-25
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A coupled strongly implicit solution strategy for unsteady three-dimensional free surface flows has been developed based on an artificial compressibility formulation for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A pseudotime term has been used in the continuity equation to permit time accurate calculations to be achieved. The scheme appears capable of tracking the free surface reasonably accurately inside a partially-filled spherical container undergoing a general rotating motion characteristic of that experienced by a spin-stabilized satellite. Five different free surface calculations have been presented. Some of the results exhibit an interesting Reynolds number dependent oscillatory behavior which is believed to be physical although no experimental results appears to be available for verification to date.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-1661
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Many reacting flows in propulsion devices cannot be efficiently calculated by modern compressible flow CFD algorithms. Most low-speed reacting flow codes based on TEACH-type technologies are inefficient and lack robustness for complex flows. Tremendous progress has been made in high-speed compressible flow CFD in the past two decades; extending its application range to low-speed regimes is highly desirable. The objectives of this document is to present an efficient and robust algorithm for multi-phase chemically reacting flows at all speeds, with emphasis on low Mach number flows, and to calculate turbulent spray combustion flow in a gas turbine combustor.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling; 16 p
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The properties of a preconditioned, coupled, strongly implicit finite-difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are investigated for two unsteady flows at low speeds, namely the impulsively started driven cavity and the startup of pipe flow. For the shear-driven cavity flow, the computational effort was observed to be nearly independent of Mach number, especially at the low end of the range considered. This Mach number independence was also observed for steady pipe flow calculations; however, rather different conclusions were drawn for the unsteady calculations. In the pressure-driven pipe startup problem, the compressibility of the fluid began to significantly influence the physics of the flow development at quite low Mach numbers. The present scheme was observed to produce the expected characteristics of completely incompressible flow when the Mach number was set at very low values. Good agreement with incompressible results available in the literature was observed.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: AIAA PAPER 93-3368 , In: AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, 11th, Orlando, FL, July 6-9, 1993, Technical Papers. Pt. 2 (A93-44994 18-34); p. 765-775.
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  • 6
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Alkali metal/alkali-halide mixtures proposed for preventing solid buildup during energy recovery. When mixture melts (by absorption of heat of fusion), it forms two immiscible liquids. Salt-rich phase is heavier and has higher melting/recrysallization temperature; so during energy recovery salt crystallizes in this phase first. Since heat exchanger for energy recovery is in lighter metal-rich phase, solids do not form and there is no reduction of heat-recovery efficiency.
    Keywords: PHYSICAL SCIENCES
    Type: NPO-15318 , NASA Tech Briefs (ISSN 0145-319X); 7; 1; P. 26
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA Journal (ISSN 0001-1452); 29; 1241-124
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The properties of a preconditioned, coupled, strongly implicit finite difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are investigated for two unsteady flows at low speeds, namely the impulsively started driven cavity and the startup of pipe flow. For the shear-driven cavity flow, the computational effort was observed to be nearly independent of Mach number, especially at the low end of the range considered. This Mach number independence was also observed for steady pipe flow calculations; however, rather different conclusions were drawn for the unsteady calculations. In the pressure-driven pipe startup problem, the compressibility of the fluid began to significantly influence the physics of the flow development at quite low Mach numbers. The present scheme was observed to produce the expected characteristics of completely incompressible flow when the Mach number was set at very low values. Good agreement with incompressible results available in the literature was observed.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NASA-TM-106380 , ICOMP-93-42 , AIAA PAPER 93-3368 , E-8193 , NAS 1.15:106380 , Fluid Dynamics Conference; 6-9 Jul. 1993; orlando, FL; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The objective of this research is to develop an efficient numerical algorithm with unstructured grids for the computation of three-dimensional chemical reacting flows that are known to occur in combustion components of propulsion systems. During the grant period (1996 to 1999), two companion codes have been developed and various numerical and physical models were implemented into the two codes.
    Keywords: Propellants and Fuels
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-10-10
    Description: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant degenerative disease caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine trinucleotide expansion in the Huntingtin ( htt ) gene. The most vulnerable brain areas to mutant HTT-evoked toxicity are the striatum and cortex. In spite of the extensive efforts that have been devoted to the characterization of HD pathogenesis, no disease-modifying therapy for HD is currently available. The A 2A adenosine receptor (A 2A R) is widely distributed in the brain, with the highest level observed in the striatum. We previously reported that stimulation of the A 2A R triggers an anti-apoptotic effect in a rat neuron-like cell line (PC12). Using a transgenic mouse model (R6/2) of HD, we demonstrated that A 2A R-selective agonists effectively ameliorate several major symptoms of HD. In the present study, we show that human iPSCs can be successfully induced to differentiate into DARPP32-positive, GABAergic neurons which express the A 2A R in a similar manner to striatal medium spiny neurons. When compared with those derived from control subjects (CON-iPSCs), these HD-iPSC-derived neurons exhibited a higher DNA damage response, based on the observed expression of H2AX and elevated oxidative stress. This is a critical observation, because oxidative damage and abnormal DNA damage/repair have been reported in HD patients. Most importantly, stimulation of the A 2A R using selective agonists reduced DNA damage and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in HD-iPSC-derived neurons through a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. These findings support our hypothesis that human neurons derived from diseased iPSCs might serve as an important platform to investigate the beneficial effects and underlying mechanisms of A 2A R drugs.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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