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  • 1
    ISSN: 0959-8103
    Keywords: polyurethane ; glycidyl-terminated polyurethane ; epoxy ; glycidol ; cryogenic ; adhesion ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Polyurethane adhesives containing the polyether backbone exhibit a good joint strength in cryogenic environments. In practice, many of the commercially available polyurethane adhesive systems contain free or chemically blocked isocyanates which have some limitations. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a modified polyurethane type adhesive. Glycidol was used to convert the isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymer to glycidylterminated polyurethane prepolymer. A series of glycidyl-terminated polyurethanes, based on polyoxypropylene glycol (PPG) soft segments having different molecular weights, were synthesized and their adhesive properties on aluminium were evaluated. The effect of the soft segment length on adhesion was examined.The adhesive properties at room temperature and cryogenic temperature are in line with the phenomenon observed in dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) and in the phase separation behavior of the polyurethanes. Differential scaning calorimetry (DSC) was used to assess the phase separation content. An improvement in the adhesive strengths at room temperature is achieved by adding epoxy resins to the glycidyl-terminated polyurethane resins.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0959-8103
    Keywords: Polyurethane ; glycidyl-terminated polyurethane ; epoxy ; morphology ; mechanical properties ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A glycidyl-terminated polyurethane prepolymer was synthesized and used to enhance the properties of epoxy resins. Some properties of glycidyl-terminated PU/epoxy with polyether based (PPG) and polyester based (PBA) glycidyl-terminated PU were investigated in this research. The polyether based glycidyl-terminated PU(PPG) modified epoxy resin proved to be superior to conventional epoxy resins in improved impact strength and fracture energy, but not tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus. On the other hand, the polyester based glycidyl-terminated PU(PBA) modified epoxy resin had increased mechanical properties while showing slight variation of impact strength and fracture energy. Different mechanisms for this behaviour are advanced in this paper.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 36 (1988), S. 141-163 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A previously reported synthetic procedure was used to graft oligo-p-hydroxybenzoic acid (oligo-PHBA) to COOH-functional acrylic copolymers. Most of the products were side-chain LC copolymers. Length of the mesogenic oligo-PHBA groups averaged up to five aromatic rings per group. Because these long mesogenic groups have a strong tendency to form LC domains, it was possible to prepare LC side-chain copolymers having as little as 5 mol % of mesogenic monomer. Thus this synthetic procedure provides a versatile route for exploration of the properties of LC copolymers having relatively few but especially effective mesogenic groups. The potential utility of such LC copolymers as binders for nonbake coatings was assessed. Variables studied were molecular weight and Tg of the acrylic copolymer backbone, number and average length of oligo-PHBA segments, and the presence or absence of a flexible spacer between the acrylic backbone and the PHBA segments. Optimum LC copolymers have moderate (15,000-30,000) Mn, low (-10°C) backbone Tg, and low (5-7.5 mol %) population of long (5 PHBA units) oligo-PHBA units. Such copolymers have two major advantages as coatings binders: They form concentrated, stable, low-viscosity dispersions in common solvents, a very desirable characteristic for application. Coating films have excellent adhesion to metal, and they have an extraordinary combination of hardness (H-2H) and impact resistance (〉 80 in. Ib). These properties are key indicators of coating performance and indicate that LC copolymers have excellent potential for use as binders for nonbake coatings. Other properties remain to be investigated.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 37 (1989), S. 1063-1078 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Carboxyl functional liquid crystalline (LC) acrylic copolymers were synthesized and were compared with carboxyl functional control copolymers of M̄n about 5000-15,000. Both types were crosslinked with a hexakismethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) resin at 150°C, a temperature below the clearing points of the LC copolymers. Birefringent phases were visible in the crosslinked films made from LC polymers. FT-IR indicated the presence of unreacted COOH in all crosslinked materials. Unreacted COOH groups in crosslinked LC copolymers appeared only slightly higher than those in crosslinked amorphous copolymers. The potential utility of these LC copolymers as binders for thermosetting coatings was assessed. Variables studied were HMMM content, the length of PHBA grafts, Tg and M̄n of the acrylic copolymer backbone, and functionality. Optimum LC copolymers have low backbone Tg (〈O°C) and low functionality (〈 7.5 mol %). Cured films of such copolymers have both high hardness (〉 35 KHN), high impact resistance (〉 80 in. ib), excellent adhesion, and good solvent resistance.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A method for grafting oligo-(p-hydroxybenzoic acid) to carboxyl-functional oligomers or polymers to give copolymers having mesogenic side chains was developed. The method employs dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) to promote esterification of PHB at mild temperatures and to remove water. Pyridine is used as solvent, and catalytic amounts of p-TSA are added to suppress side reactions. Grafting efficiencies are estimated to range from 74 to 90%. Ungrafted oligo-PHB and other by-products are readily removed. Structure assignments were supported by IR,1H-NMR, GPC, DSC and model compound studies. The method appears capable of grafting oligo-PHB side chains to any pyridine soluble oligomer or polymer having carboxyl groups and no other reactive groups that could interfere.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Die Klebeeigenschaften und das Phasentrennungsverhalten von Polyurethanen aus „weichen“ Poly(oxypropylen)-Einheiten (PPG) und „harten“ Segmenten aus Toluoldiisocyanat (TDI) und 1,4-Butandiol (BD) wurden untersucht. Die Länge der PPG-Weichsegmente (PPG mit MW 700, 1000 bzw. 2000) sowie deren Konzentration (30, 50 and 70 Gew.-%) wurden variiert. Die Isocyanat-Endgruppen dieser PU-Harze wurden mit 2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol zu Glycidyl-Endgruppen umgesetzt. Die Klebeeigenschaften bei der Temperatur flüssigen Stickstoffs folgen dem Phasentrennungsverhalten der Polyurethane. Die Phasentrennung wurde mit DSC-(Enthalpiesprung bei der Glasternperatur) und IR-Messungen (Veränderungen im Bereich der N—H- und C=O- Streckschwingungen) untersucht. Die rnodifizierten PU-Harze weisen neben verbesserter Haftung bei tiefen Temperaturen auch gute Lagerungseigenschaften sowie die Fähigkeit der Härtung bei Raumtemperatur auf.
    Notes: 2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol has been introduced into isocyanate-terminated polyurethane to form glycidyl-terminated polyurethane resins. A series of glycidyl-terminated polyurethanes based on hydroxyterminated poly(oxypropylene) (poly(oxypropylene) glycol, PPG), toluene diisocyanate (TDI), and 1,4-butanediol (BD) was synthesized with various PPG soft segment lengths (MW 700, 1000 and 2000) and soft segment concentrations (30, 50 and 70 wt.-%). The effects of glycidyl-terminated polyurethane on the adhesion properties and the phase separation were investigated. The adhision properties at liquid nitrogen temperature coincide with the phenomenon observed in the phase separation behavior of polyurethane. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared technique (IR) were used to assess the phase separation content. The enthalpy jump at the glass transition temperature (ΔCp) and the unique spectroscopic features in the N—H and C=O stretching regions were applied to characterized the phase separation behavior. It was found that the modified resins do not only show superior adhesion at liquid nitrogen temperature but also exhibit some unique properties, e.g., room temperature curing and good storage stability.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Glycidol has been introduced into isocyanate-terminated polyurethane to form glycidyl-terminated polyurethane resin. A series of glycidyl-terminated polyurethanes, based on PTMEG, PPG, and polyester soft segments, having different molecular weights were synthesized and their adhesion properties on aluminum were evaluated. The effect of the soft-segment structure, soft-segment length, and temperature on adhesion were examined. It was found that the resin showed superior adhesion at cryogenic temperatures. The results coincide with the phenomenon observed in dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the modified system also offered some distinct advantages over the commercial polyurethane adhesives, e.g., good storage stability and room-temperature curing. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Glycidol was used to convert the isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymer to glycidyl-terminated polyurethane prepolymer. The modified polyurethane not only offers some distinct advantages over the commercial polyurethane prepolymer, but also enhances the properties of the epoxy resins. The glycidyl-terminated polyurethane modified epoxy resin proved to be superior to conventional epoxy resins in improving impact strength, fracture energy, and adhesion properties. The compatibility of the compounds in this glycidyl-terminated PU/epoxy system was investigated using different preparation procedures. It was found that the synthesized glycidyl-terminated polyurethane prereacted with curing agents, exhibited a lesser degree of phase separation, and can influence the mechanical properties of polymer blends. The results coincide with the phenomena observed in dynamic mechanical analysis and scanning election microscopy. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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