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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: phosphomycin ; pharmacokinetics ; impaired renal function ; “skin blister” ; interstitial fluid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The entry and persistence of phosphomycin in interstitial tissue fluid (ITF) were studied in 9 patients with normal renal function and 8 patients with varying degrees of renal impairment, all of whom received a single i.v. dose of 30 mg/kg. ITF was obtained from skin blisters produced by suction. The antibiotic followed a two-compartment open kinetic model. In patients with normal renal function, phosphomycin is incorporated rapidly into the ITF reaching a level of 60.4 µg/ml 60 min after administration. There was no statistically significant difference between the elimination rates from serum and ITF. The serum half-life of the slow disposition phase was 1.75 h in patients with normal renal function. There was a linear correlation between the elimination half-life of phosphomycin in serum and ITF in subjects with differing degrees of renal impairment.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Serum samples from 79 healthy subjects and 31 patients with type I amyloid neuropathy were typed for nine Gm markers. No significant associations were found between any of the Gm phenotypes and the disease. The frequencies of the various phenotypes showed satisfactory agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg distribution. One individual had an unusual Gm phenotype.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Thermal neutrons are important analytical tools for microscopic material probe. These neutrons can be selected by diffraction technique using monocrystal, usually artificial. A crystal selection process was implemented and the characteristics of natural specimens were studied by activation analysis-k 0 method. The representative 120 samples, of which 21 best types, were irradiated in IPR-R1 and measured with a neutron diffractometer at IEA-R1m Brazilian reactors. These results are useful for database build up and ease the choice of appropriate natural crystal, with some advantage options: highest intensity diffracted, enlarging the energy operational interval and optimal performance in special applications.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The antibody response of mice infected withPlasmodium vinckei after treatment with chloroquine either alone or in combination with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was determined. Sequential serum samples were drawn from BALB/c mice receiving either 240 μg chloroquine on the day of infection or 120 μg chloroquine plus 104 units IFN-γ daily for 11 days beginning on day 3 prior to infection. Mice treated with additional IFN-γ showed an early induction of IgG2a response and a reduction in IgG1 antibodies as detected by the immunofluorescence technique at between 10 and 16 days after infection as compared with mice treated with chloroquine alone. Thus, IFN-γ may partly exert its antimalarial activity via the induction of IgG2a antibody formation. At 4–6 weeks after infection, when mice from both groups resisted homologous re-infection, the predominant antibody isotypes found in both groups were IgG1 and IgG2a. Serum samples obtained from mice in both treatment groups at 6 weeks after infection were used for serum transfer experiments. When parasitised erythrocytes were preincubated with such immune serum, a retardation of the course of parasitaemia by 2 days was observed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The structures of the high- and low-temperature phases of 38% brominated BCCD [betaine (trimethylammonioacetate) calcium chloride dihydrate], the latter being known as the X-phase, have been determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction at 295 and 20 K, respectively. The symmetry of the X-phase is described by the P212121 space group. The distortion with respect to the high-temperature Pnma phase is characterized by anti-symmetric displacements of the betaine molecules as well as of the Ca octahedra. On the basis of a symmetry-mode analysis, we propose an interpretation of the direct phase transition that occurs around 80 K between these two phases.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Daily changes in photoprotective mechanisms were studied in sun leaves of Quercus suber L., Quercus ilex L., Olea europaea L. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. trees during the summer in Portugal. Even though stomatal closure explained most of the diurnal variation in carbon assimilation along the summer, a decline in the photochemical yield of photosystem II (F′v/F′m) also occurred, as a result of an excess of intercepted solar radiation when carbon assimilation is limited by stomatal closure due to high vapour pressure deficits and/or soil water deficits. These changes were accompanied by the conversion of violaxanthin to antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin which were correlated with thermal dissipation of excess photon energy. In spite of a common general response, differences between species were observed -Olea europaea, which is a slow-growing tree, had the lowest net photosynthetic rates, the highest proportion of carotenoids in relation to chlorophyll and the highest rates of de-epoxidation of violaxanthin. This enabled a large thermal dissipation of the excess intercepted radiation but led to rather small values of light utilisation for photochemistry (ca 20%). In contrast, in E. globulus, a fast-growing tree, photosynthetic rates were the highest, thermal dissipation of absorbed radiation the lowest and maximal values of light utilisation for photochemistry reached ca 50%. The two Quercus species exhibited an intermediate response. A high degree of co-ordination is apparent between stomatal behaviour, photosynthetic capacity and photoprotection mechanisms.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 262 (1976), S. 155-156 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THE letter by Salaman and Valdimars-son1 is an important step forward in the understanding of the problem of whether the activities of dialysable transfer factor (TFd) are specific or not. They admit that two substances may be involved in the effects of dialysable leukocyte extracts (DLE)?-one ...
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Gas exchange characteristics of leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cvs Tinta Amarela and Periquita, two grapevine cultivars grown in distinct climatic regions of Portugal, were studied under natural and controlled conditions. Daily time courses of gas exchange were measured on both a hot, sunny day and a cooler, partly cloudy day. Responses of net photosynthesis to irradiance and internal partial pressure of CO2, were also obtained. A strong correlation between net photosynthesis (PN) and leaf conductance (gs) was found during the diurnal time courses of gas exchange, as well as a relatively constant internal partial pressure of CO2 (Pi), even under non-steady-state conditions. On the cloudless day, both PN and gs were lower in the afternoon than in the morning, despite similar conditions of leaf temperature, air to leaf water vapor deficit and irradiance. The response curves of net photosynthesis to internal CO2 showed linearity up to pi values of 50 Pa, possibly indicating a substantial excess of photosynthetic capacity. When measured at low partial pressures of O2 (1 kPa), PN became inhibited at high CO2 levels. Inhibition of PN at high CO2 was absent under normal levels of O2 (21 kPa). Significant differences in gas exchange characteristics were found between the two cultivars, with T. Amarela having higher rates under similar measurement conditions. In particular, the superior performance of T. Amarela at high temperatures may represent adaptation to the warmer conditions at its place of origin.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7357
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Direct measurements of the temperature derivative of the electrical resistivity dϱ/dT have been made on several ferromagnetic NiCu alloys with high Cu content (20, 30, 40, 50.4 at %). For Ni80Cu20 and Ni70Cu30 the results closely resemble the general pattern found in pure ferromagnets: dϱ/dT ∼- b − a ln ¦ɛ¦, for 10−3 ≲ ¦ɛ¦ ≲ 10−1, with a and b constants and ɛ = (T/T c )− 1. In Ni60Cu40 the rounding off of the magnetic transition is already so pronounced that a similar analysis is hardly significant. In the Ni49.6Cu50.4 sample negative values of dϱ/dT were confirmed above ~165 K. The possible theoretical implications of the results are briefly discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Differences in maximum leaf conductance in grapevine plants growing in soils with contrasting water availabilities during mid-summer in Portugal could be accounted for by differences in the concentration of ABA in xylem sap. This conclusion is reinforced by the observation that the relationship between leaf conductance and endogenous ABA concentration can be mimicked by the application of exogenous ABA to leaves detached from irrigated plants. During the day, leaf conductance decreased after a morning peak, even when the leaves remained in a constant environment at a moderate temperature and leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference. This decline in leaf conductance was not a consequence of an increase in the xylem ABA concentration or the rate of delivery of this compound by the transpiratory stream. The afternoon depression in leaf conductance was associated with an apparent limitation in stomatal opening potential, which persisted even when detached leaves were fed with water and rehydrated. The reason for this inhibition has still to be identified.
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