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  • 1
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Growth of strains of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella pullorum on Hektoen agar has been reported to influence the expression of long-chain lipopolysaccharide and motility respectively. In this study we used a panel of strains of S. enteritidis and S. pullorum to investigate these phenomena. Culture on Hektoen agar did not cause rough strains of S. enteritidis to express long-chain lipopolysaccharide or strains of S. pullorum to become motile. It was concluded that growth of strains of S. enteritidis and S. pullorum on Hektoen agar would not normally affect the expression of somatic or flagellar antigens, and would not influence the interpretation of the Kauffman-White typing scheme.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract BALB/c and Schofield mice were inoculated with formalin-killed bacteria prepared from strains of Salmonella enteritidis belonging to phage type (PT) 4 and carrying a 38 MDa plasmid and expressing long-chain lipopolysaccharide, or strains without a 38 MDa plasmid or lacking the ability to express lipopolysaccharide. Vaccinated mice were challenged with viable bacteria belonging to a virulent strain of S. enteritidis (PT4). Mice surviving this viable challenge were examined for a humoral antibody response to membrane antigens of S. enteritidi (PT4) that might relate to the possession of a given virulence property. BALB/c mice immunized with any of the test antigens were found to be immune to S. enteritidis (PT4), and this immunity was protective. Serum antibodies, of the IgG class, were detected to OmpA and a minor outer membrane protein (OMP) of 31 kDa. Schofield mice also raised IgG antibodies to these outer membrane proteins; however, non-immunized mice of this strain were resistant to infection. The virulence of S. enteritidis (PT4) was also tested using mice belonging to strains B10D2 (new), Biozzi (high), Biozzi (low), C3HeJ, B10ITYR and C57/L.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was purified from strains of Yersinia enterocolitica belonging to serogroups 03 and 09, by three methods, and analysed by SDS-PAGE and silver staining for carbohydrate. SDS-PAGE of LPS prepared from whole-cells by digestion with proteinase-K, produced profiles containing high molecular mass LPS and a lower molecular mass region migrating as discrete bands. LPS prepared fron strains belonging to serogroup 03, using a hot-phenol procedure alone was found to contain cellular proteins, and LPS prepared from strains of serogroup 09, by this method, did not contain high molecular mass carbohydrate. A novel method of preparing LPS by digesting bacterial outer membranes with proteinase-K prior to hot-phenol extraction produced protein-free LPS from strain of Y. enterocolitica 03 and high molecular mass LPS from strains belonging to serogroup 09.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Three strains of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) and 33 strains of S. enteritidis phage type 7 (PT7) were examined for the ability to produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and for plasmid carriage. The LPS of all strains of PT4 gave a typical ‘ladder’ pattern by SDS-PAGE and silver staining, and on serotyping these strains were shown to express the O-antigens 9, 12. In contrast, strains of PT7 did not express long-chain LPS and were autoagglutinable. All strains of PT4 and the majority of strains of PT7 carried a single plasmid of 38 MDa, indistinguishable when characterised by restriction endonuclease fragmentation analysis. Epidemiological and experimental observations have demonstrated a relationship between strains of S. enteritidis PT4 and PT7, and our results, using mice, show that the loss of ability of strains of PT4 to sythesise LPS is responsible for the conversion of highly virulent strains of PT4 to avirulent strains of PT7. From epidemiological data of human infections in England and Wales, we suggest that strains of S. enteritidis PT7 may be less virulent for humans.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nine strains of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 were examined for virulence in BALB/c mice. The possession of a 38 MDa plasmid was necessary for full virulence. Strains carrying this plasmid had LD50 values of 〈20 bacteria whilst plasmid-free strains had LD50 values of 〉106 bacteria when challenged intraperitoneally. Pathogenesis of disease involved the widespread distribution of bacteria throughout the tissues.Possession of the 38 MDa plasmid could not be linked with the ability of strains to express novel outer membrane proteins, to produce toxins affecting Vero, Y1, HeLa, Henle or HEp-2 cells, or to invade HEp-2 cells. Furthermore, the 38 MDa plasmid did not encode an aerobactin-mediated iron uptake system or the production of a haemolysin.Strains of S. enteritidis PT4 isolated in 1967, 1978 or 1979 and possessing the 38 MDa plasmid showed the same virulence properties as the current plasmid-carrying strains. This suggests that the enhanced virulence of the current strains for poultry is unlikely to be the result of changes in the 38 MDa plasmid.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Vero cytotoxin (VT) producing strains of Escherichia coli (VTEC), including isolates from cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and infantile diarrhoea, were used to determine the effect of iron availability on the production of intra- and extracellular VT, with particular interest in elevating toxin production by low-level toxin producing VTEC. Culturing bacteria under iron restriction resulted in growth retardation and a decrease in the production of VT. For the routine detection of both high- and low-level VT-producing E. coli, there was no advantage to be gained by growing bacteria under iron restriction or using disrupted bacterial cell preparations; on the contrary, testing culture supernatants from bacteria grown in iron-replete media for approximately 14 h proved to be the most sensitive and accurate method for detecting VT and the resultant identification of VTEC.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 123 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The pH of the environment influenced the expression of outer membrane protein by S. enteritidis PT4 growing in broth. Growth in broth at pH 5 to 7 resulted in variation in expression of outer membrane proteins of 18 to 22 kDa. Bacteria became acid-fixed and non-viable following prolonged incubation in broth with a pH below 5, and expression of flagella was repressed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 109 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Strains of Salmonella enteritidis expressed a novel porin with a subunit size of 35.5 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE. This protein was expressed as a major outer membrane protein (MOMP) when grown on nutrient agar, McConkey agar or blood agar, or in Tris-succinate medium; but was only produced in trace amounts when strains were grown in nutrient broth. This OMP was produced by all strains of S. enteritidis examined, regardless of phage type, and expression was not related to the possession of a 38-MDa mouse-virulence plasmid or the ability of strains to make long-chain lipopolysaccharide. This new porin has been tentatively called OmpE.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A DNA microarray was used to analyze the distribution of plasmid and chromosomal genes among strains of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) isolated from a prospective diarrhoea surveillance study in the United Kingdom. Target genes were extracted from existing databases and from the genome sequence of prototype EAEC strain 042. We found that strains exhibiting the aggregative adherence (AA) phenotype could be broadly divided into two groups depending upon whether they harboured genes from the EAEC virulence plasmid (pAA) and a set of chromosomal genes found in EAEC strain 042. Several chromosomal loci were inherited en bloc, and were more common in strains which we designated Group 1; genes at the pheU locus were particularly conserved. Genes encoded on the pAA plasmid and those under control of the master regulator AggR were also concentrated in the Group 1 EAEC. A gene encoding a type 1 pilin allele was detected more frequently in Group 2 EAEC. Our data suggest that strains previously designated as typical EAEC harbour a large number of conserved plasmid and chromosomal loci, further illuminating a package of virulence genes common to the most important EAEC.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Certain strains of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli express an outer membrane-associated protein, involved with the adhesion of these bacteria to HEp-2 cells. Strains of enteroaggregative E. coli hybridising with DNA probes for aggregative adhesion, diffuse adhesion and aggregative adhesion fimbriae II expressed an outer membrane-associated protein of 18 kDa regulated by magnesium ions. Strains hybridising with the aggregative adhesion probe only expressed a 20-kDa outer membrane-associated protein regulated by calcium and magnesium. The present study describes two populations of enteroaggregative E. coli which appear to adhere to HEp-2 cells by expressing antigenically distinct, negatively charged membrane-associated proteins.
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