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  • 1
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-13
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-12-21
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 100 (2006): 213-233, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2005.10.013.
    Description: Thorium-234 is increasingly used as a tracer of ocean particle flux, primarily as a means to estimate particulate organic carbon export from the surface ocean. This requires determination of both the 234Th activity distribution (in order to calculate 234Th fluxes) and an estimate of the C/234Th ratio on sinking particles, to empirically derive C fluxes. In reviewing C/234Th variability, results obtained using a single sampling method show the most predictable behavior. For example, in most studies that employ in situ pumps to collect size fractionated particles, C/234Th either increases or is relatively invariant with increasing particle size (size classes 〉1 to 100’s μm). Observations also suggest that C/234Th decreases with depth and can vary significantly between regions (highest in blooms of large diatoms and highly productive coastal settings). Comparisons of C fluxes derived from 234Th show good agreement with independent estimates of C flux, including mass balances of C and nutrients over appropriate space and time scales (within factors of 2-3). We recommend sampling for C/234Th from a standard depth of 100 m, or at least one depth below the mixed layer using either large volume size fractionated filtration to capture the rarer large particles, or a sediment trap or other device to collect sinking particles. We also recommend collection of multiple 234Th profiles and C/234Th samples during the course of longer observation periods to better sample temporal variations in both 234Th flux and the characteristic of sinking particles. We are encouraged by new technologies which are optimized to more reliably sample truly settling particles, and expect the utility of this tracer to increase, not just for upper ocean C fluxes but for other elements and processes deeper in the water column.
    Description: Individuals and science efforts discussed herein were supported by many national science programs, including the U.S. National Science Foundation and U.S. Department of Energy. S.F. and J.C.M. acknowledge the support provided to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Marine Environment Laboratory by the Government of the Principality of Monaco. T.T. acknowledges support from the Australian Antarctic Science Program. K.B. was supported in part by a WHOI Ocean Life Institute Fellowship.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 109 (2008): 185-187, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2008.04.001.
    Description: M. Charette acknowledges the support of NSF for his participation in the workshop and in the editing of this special issue (OCE-0425061; ANT- 0443869).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2007. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 110 (2008): 120-127, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2008.02.011.
    Description: Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), in form of springs and diffuse seepage, has long been recognized as a source of chemical constituents to the coastal ocean. Because groundwater is two to four orders of magnitude richer in radon than surface water, it has been used as both a qualitative and a quantitative tracer of groundwater discharge. Besides this large activity gradient, the other perceived advantage of radon stems from its classification as noble gas; that is, its chemical behavior is expected not to be influenced by salinity, redox, and diagenetic conditions present in aquatic environments. During our three-year monthly sampling of the subterranean estuary (STE) in Waquoit Bay, MA, we found highly variable radon activities (50-1600 dpm L-1) across the fresh-saline interface of the aquifer. We monitored pore water chemistry and radon activity at 8 fixed depths spanning from 2 to 5.6 m across the STE, and found seasonal fluctuations in activity at depths where elevated radon was observed. We postulate that most of pore water 222Rn is produced from particle-surface bound 226Ra, and that the accumulation of this radium is likely regulated by the presence of manganese (hydr)oxides. Layers of manganese (hydr)oxides form at the salinity transition zone (STZ), where water with high salinity, high manganese, and low redox potential mixes with fresh water. Responding to the seasonality of aquifer recharge, the location of the STZ and the layers with radium enriched manganese (hydr)oxide follows the seasonal land- or bay-ward movement of the freshwater lens. This results in seasonal changes in the depth where elevated radon activities are observed. The conclusion of our study is that the freshwater part of the STE has a radon signature that is completely different from the STZ or recirculated sea water. Therefore, the radon activity in SGD will depend on the ratio of fresh and recirculated seawater in the discharging groundwater.
    Description: This work is a result of research sponsored by NSF (OCE- 0425061 to M.A.C.) and the WHOI Postdoctoral Scholar program (to H.D.).
    Keywords: Subterranean estuary ; Geochemical tracers ; Radon ; Radium ; Manganese ; Groundwater ; Submarine groundwater discharge ; Geochemical transformations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009): GB4014, doi:10.1029/2008GB003406.
    Description: In the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) fronts interact with shelf waters facilitating lateral transport of shelf-derived components such as iron into high-nutrient offshore regions. To trace these shelf-derived components and estimate lateral mixing rates of shelf water, we used naturally occurring radium isotopes. Short-lived radium isotopes were used to quantify the rates of shelf water entrainment while Fe/228Ra ratios were used to calculate the Fe flux. In the summer of 2006 we found rapid mixing and significant lateral iron export, namely, a dissolved iron flux of 1.1 × 105 mol d−1 and total acid leachable iron flux of 1.1 × 106 mol d−1 all of which is transported in the mixed layer from the shelf region offshore. This dissolved iron flux is significant, especially considering that the bloom observed in the offshore region (0.5–2 mg chl a m−3) had an iron demand of 1.1 to 4 × 105 mol Fe. Net vertical export fluxes of particulate Fe derived from 234Th/238U disequilibrium and Fe/234Th ratios accounted for only about 25% of the dissolved iron flux. On the other hand, vertical upward mixing of iron rich deeper waters provided only 7% of the lateral dissolved iron flux. We found that similarly to other studies in iron-fertilized regions of the Southern Ocean, lateral fluxes overwhelm vertical inputs and vertical export from the water column and support significant phytoplankton blooms in the offshore regions of the Drake Passage.
    Description: This work was funded by the National Science Foundation (ANT-0443869 to M.A.C.).
    Keywords: Radium isotopes ; Iron ; Natural iron fertilization
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 40 (2013): 1557–1561, doi:10.1002/grl.50219.
    Description: In the past two decades, a number of studies have been carried out in the Southern Ocean to look at export production using drifting sediment traps and thorium-234 based measurements, which allows us to reexamine the validity of using the existing relationships between production, export efficiency, and temperature to derive satellite-based carbon export estimates in this region. Comparisons of in situ export rates with modeled rates indicate a two to fourfold overestimation of export production by existing models. Comprehensive analysis of in situ data indicates two major reasons for this difference: (i) in situ data indicate a trend of decreasing export efficiency with increasing production which is contrary to existing export models and (ii) the export efficiencies appear to be less sensitive to temperature in this region compared to the global estimates used in the existing models. The most important implication of these observations is that the simplest models of export, which predict increase in carbon flux with increasing surface productivity, may require additional parameters, different weighing of existing parameters, or separate algorithms for different oceanic regimes.
    Description: This work was supported by NASA award number NNX08AB48G.
    Description: 2013-10-23
    Keywords: Biological pump ; Southern Ocean ; Carbon export
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 90 (2013): 15-30, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.02.029.
    Description: The seasonal cycle of circulation and transport in the Antarctic Peninsula shelf region is investigated using a high-resolution (~2km) regional model based on the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model also includes a naturally occurring tracer with a strong source over the shelf (radium isotope 228Ra, t1/2=5.8 year) to investigate the sediment Fe input and its transport. The model is spun up for three years using climatological boundary and surface forcing and then run for the 2004-2006 period using realistic forcing. Model results suggest a persistent and coherent circulation system throughout the year consisting of several major components that converge water masses from various sources toward Elephant Island. These currents are largely in geostrophic balance, driven by surface winds, topographic steering, and large-scale forcing. Strong off-shelf transport of the Fe-rich shelf waters takes place over the northeastern shelf/slope of Elephant Island, driven by a combination of topographic steering, extension of shelf currents, and strong horizontal mixing between the ACC and shelf waters. These results are generally consistent with recent and historical observational studies. Both the shelf circulation and off-shelf transport show a significant seasonality, mainly due to the seasonal changes of surface winds and large-scale circulation. Modeled and observed distributions of 228Ra suggest that a majority of Fe-rich upper layer waters exported off-shelf around Elephant Island are carried by the shelfbreak current and the Bransfield Strait Current from the shallow sills between Gerlache Strait and Livingston Island, and northern shelf of the South Shetland Islands, where strong winter mixing supplies much of the sediment derived nutrients (including Fe) input to the surface layer.
    Description: This project is supported by NOAA grant NA09OAR4310062. MZ and MJ 11 are also supported by NSF grant 0948378 and MAC by NSF grant 0948442.
    Keywords: Model ; Circulation ; Antarctic Peninsula ; Antarctic Circumpolar Current ; Elephant Island ; Off-shelf transport ; Fe ; Drake Passage ; Southern Scotia Sea
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 117 (2013): 33-52, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2013.03.021.
    Description: Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the ocean supplies Sr with less radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr than seawater, and thus constitutes an important term in the Sr isotope budget in the modern ocean. However, few data exist for Sr in coastal groundwater or in the geochemically dynamic subterranean estuary (STE). We examined Sr concentrations and isotope ratios from nine globally-distributed coastal sites and characterized the behavior of Sr in the STE. Dissolved Sr generally mixed conservatively in the STE, although large differences were observed in the meteoric groundwater end-member Sr concentrations among sites (0.1 – 24 μM Sr). Strontium isotope exchange was observed in the STE at five of the sites studied, and invariably favored the meteoric groundwater end-member signature. Most of the observed isotope exchange occurred in the salinity range 5-15, and reached up to 40% exchange at salinity 10. Differences in fresh groundwater Sr concentrations and isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr = 0.707-0.710) reflected aquifer lithology. The SGD end-member 87Sr/86Sr must be lower than modern seawater (i.e., less than 0.70916) in part because groundwater Sr concentrations are orders of magnitude higher in less-carbonate and volcanic island aquifers. A simple lithological model and groundwater Sr data compiled from the literature were used to estimate a global average groundwater end-member of 2.9 μM Sr with 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089. This represents a meteoric-SGD-driven Sr input to the ocean of 0.7-2.8 × 1010 mol Sr y-1. Meteoric SGD therefore accounts for 2-8% of the oceanic Sr isotope budget, comparable to other known source terms, but is insufficient to balance the remainder of the budget. Using reported estimates for brackish SGD, the estimated volume discharge at salinity 10 (7-11 × 1015 L y-1) was used to evaluate the impact of isotope exchange in the STE on the brackish SGD Sr flux. A moderate estimate of 25% isotope exchange in the STE gives an SGD Sr end-member 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7091. The brackish SGD Sr flux thus accounts for 11-23% of the marine Sr isotope budget, but does not appear sufficient to balance the ~40% remaining after other known sources are included. Substantial uncertainties remain for estimating the SGD source of Sr to the global ocean, especially in the determination of the volume flux of meteoric SGD, and in the paucity of measurements of groundwater Sr isotope composition in major SGD regions such as Papua New Guinea, the South America west coast, and West Africa. Consequently, our global estimate should be viewed with some caution. Nevertheless, we show that the combined sources of meteoric SGD and brackish SGD coupled with isotope exchange in the STE may constitute a substantial component (~13-30%) of the modern oceanic 87Sr/86Sr budget, likely exceeding less radiogenic Sr inputs by sedimentary diagenesis and hydrothermal circulation through the mid-ocean ridge system. Temporal variation in SGD Sr fluxes and isotope composition may have contributed to fluctuations in the oceanic 87Sr/86Sr ratio over geologic time.
    Description: This project was supported by funding from the WHOI Coastal Ocean 670 Institute and the Tropical Research Initiative, and NSF OCE-0751525 to MAC. BPE acknowledges financial support from NSF ETBC-85101500 and a WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute Fellowship.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 10 (2012): 451-463, doi:10.4319/lom.2012.10.451.
    Description: In anticipation of the international GEOTRACES program, which will study the global marine biogeochemistry of trace elements and isotopes, we conducted a multi-lab intercomparison for radium isotopes. The intercomparison was in two parts involving the distribution of: (1) samples collected from four marine environments (open ocean, continental slope, shelf, and estuary) and (2) a suite of four reference materials prepared with isotopic standards (circulated to participants as 'unknowns'). Most labs performed well with 228Ra and 224Ra determination, however, there were a number of participants that reported 226Ra, 223Ra, and 228Th (supported 224Ra) well outside the 95% confidence interval. Many outliers were suspected to be a result of poorly calibrated detectors, though other method specific factors likely played a role (e.g., detector leakage, insufficient equilibration). Most methods for radium analysis in seawater involve a MnO2 fiber column preconcentration step; as such, we evaluated the extraction efficiency of this procedure and found that it ranged from an average of 87% to 94% for the four stations. Hence, nonquantitative radium recovery from seawater samples may also have played a role in lab-to-lab variability.
    Description: This work was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation (OCE- 0751461to M.A.C and H.D. and OCE- 0751867 to W.S.M.).
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