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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: Aircraft altimeter and in situ measurements are used to examine relationships between altimeter backscatter and the magnitude of near-surface wind and friction velocities. Comparison of altimeter radar cross section with wind speed is made through the modified Chelton-Wentz algorithm. Improved agreement is found after correcting 10-m winds for both surface current and atmospheric stability. An altimeter friction velocity algorithm is derived based on the wind speed model and an open-ocean drag coefficient. Close agreement between altimeter- and in situ-derived friction velocities is found. For this dataset, quality of the altimeter inversion to surface friction velocity is comparable to that for adjusted winds and clearly better than the inversion to true 10-m wind speed.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes Research Publications; 159-160
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission offers the first opportunity to observe rain cells over the ocean by a dual-frequency radar altimeter (TOPEX) and simultaneously observe their natural radiative properties by a three-frequency radiometer (TOPEX microwave radiometer (TMR)). This work is a feasibility study aimed at understanding the capability and potential of the active/passive TOPEX/TMR system for oceanic rainfall detection. On the basis of past experiences in rain flagging, a joint TOPEX/TMR rain probability index is proposed. This index integrates several advantages of the two sensors and provides a more reliable rain estimate than the radiometer alone. One year's TOPEX/TMR data are used to test the performance of the index. The resulting rain frequency statistics show quantitative agreement with those obtained from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), while qualitative agreement is found for other regions of the world ocean. A recent finding that the latitudinal frequency of precipitation over the Southern Ocean increases steadily toward the Antarctic continent is confirmed by our result. Annual and seasonal precipitation maps are derived from the index. Notable features revealed include an overall similarity in rainfall pattern from the Pacific, the Atlantic, and the Indian Oceans and a general phase reversal between the two hemispheres, as well as a number of regional anomalies in terms of rain intensity. Comparisons with simultaneous Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) multisatellite precipitation rate and COADS rain climatology suggest that systematic differences also exist. One example is that the maximum rainfall in the ITCZ of the Indian Ocean appears to be more intensive and concentrated in our result compared to that of the GPCP. Another example is that the annual precipitation produced by TOPEX/TMR is constantly higher than those from GPCP and COADS in the extratropical regions of the northern hemisphere, especially in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Analyses of the seasonal variations of prominent rainy and dry zones in the tropics and subtropics show various behaviors such as systematic migration, expansion and contraction, merging and breakup, and pure intensity variations. The seasonality of regional features is largely influenced by local atmospheric events such as monsoon, storm, or snow activities. The results of this study suggest that TOPEX and its follow-on may serve as a complementary sensor to the special sensor microwave/imager in observing global oceanic precipitation.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes Research Processes; 25-26
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-01-06
    Description: Shelf seas play an important role in the global carbon cycle, absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and exporting carbon (C) to the open ocean and sediments. The magnitude of these processes is poorly constrained, because observations are typically interpolated over multiple years. Here, we used 298500 observations of CO2 fugacity (fCO2) from a single year (2015), to estimate the net influx of atmospheric CO2 as 26.2 ± 4.7 Tg C yr−1 over the open NW European shelf. CO2 influx from the atmosphere was dominated by influx during winter as a consequence of high winds, despite a smaller, thermallydriven, air-sea fCO 2 gradient compared to the larger, biologically-driven summer gradient. In order to understand this climate regulation service, we constructed a carbon-budget supplemented by data from the literature, where the NW European shelf is treated as a box with carbon entering and leaving the box. This budget showed that net C-burial was a small sink of 1.3 ± 3.1 Tg C yr−1, while CO2 efflux from estuaries to the atmosphere, removed the majority of river C-inputs. In contrast, the input from the Baltic Sea likely contributes to net export via the continental shelf pump and advection (34.4 ± 6.0 Tg C yr−1).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: We propose a satellite mission that uses a near-nadir Ka-band Doppler radar to measure surface currents, ice drift and ocean waves at spatial scales of 40 km and more, with snapshots at least every day for latitudes 75 to 82°, and every few days for other latitudes. The use of incidence angles of 6 and 12° allows for measurement of the directional wave spectrum, which yields accurate corrections of the wave-induced bias in the current measurements. The instrument's design, an algorithm for current vector retrieval and the expected mission performance are presented here. The instrument proposed can reveal features of tropical ocean and marginal ice zone (MIZ) dynamics that are inaccessible to other measurement systems, and providing global monitoring of the ocean mesoscale that surpasses the capability of today's nadir altimeters. Measuring ocean wave properties has many applications, including examining wave–current interactions, air–sea fluxes, the transport and convergence of marine plastic debris and assessment of marine and coastal hazards.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The flow (flux) of climate-critical gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), between the ocean and the atmosphere is a fundamental component of our climate and an important driver of the biogeochemical systems within the oceans. Therefore, the accurate calculation of these air–sea gas fluxes is critical if we are to monitor the oceans and assess the impact that these gases are having on Earth's climate and ecosystems. FluxEngine is an open-source software toolbox that allows users to easily perform calculations of air–sea gas fluxes from model, in situ, and Earth observation data. The original development and verification of the toolbox was described in a previous publication. The toolbox has now been considerably updated to allow for its use as a Python library, to enable simplified installation, to ensure verification of its installation, to enable the handling of multiple sparingly soluble gases, and to enable the greatly expanded functionality for supporting in situ dataset analyses. This new functionality for supporting in situ analyses includes user-defined grids, time periods and projections, the ability to reanalyse in situ CO2 data to a common temperature dataset, and the ability to easily calculate gas fluxes using in situ data from drifting buoys, fixed moorings, and research cruises. Here we describe these new capabilities and demonstrate their application through illustrative case studies. The first case study demonstrates the workflow for accurately calculating CO2 fluxes using in situ data from four research cruises from the Surface Ocean CO2 ATlas (SOCAT) database. The second case study calculates air–sea CO2 fluxes using in situ data from a fixed monitoring station in the Baltic Sea. The third case study focuses on nitrous oxide (N2O) and, through a user-defined gas transfer parameterisation, identifies that biological surfactants in the North Atlantic could suppress individual N2O sea–air gas fluxes by up to 13 %. The fourth and final case study illustrates how a dissipation-based gas transfer parameterisation can be implemented and used. The updated version of the toolbox (version 3) and all documentation is now freely available.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Shelf seas play an important role in the global carbon cycle, absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and exporting carbon (C) to the open ocean and sediments. The magnitude of these processes is poorly constrained, because observations are typically interpolated over multiple years. Here, we used 298500 observations of CO2 fugacity (fCO2) from a single year (2015), to estimate the net influx of atmospheric CO2 as 26.2 ± 4.7 Tg C yr−1 over the open NW European shelf. CO2 influx from the atmosphere was dominated by influx during winter as a consequence of high winds, despite a smaller, thermally-driven, air-sea fCO2 gradient compared to the larger, biologically-driven summer gradient. In order to understand this climate regulation service, we constructed a carbon-budget supplemented by data from the literature, where the NW European shelf is treated as a box with carbon entering and leaving the box. This budget showed that net C-burial was a small sink of 1.3 ± 3.1 Tg C yr−1, while CO2 efflux from estuaries to the atmosphere, removed the majority of river C-inputs. In contrast, the input from the Baltic Sea likely contributes to net export via the continental shelf pump and advection (34.4 ± 6.0 Tg C yr−1).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The Sea surface KInematics Multiscale monitoring (SKIM) satellite mission is designed to explore ocean surface current and waves. This includes tropical currents, notably the unknown patterns of divergence and their impact on the ocean heat budget near the Equator, monitoring of the emerging Arctic up to 82.5$(\circ)$N. SKIM will also make unprecedented direct measurements of strong currents, from boundary currents to the Antarctic circumpolar current, and their interaction with ocean waves with expected impacts on air-sea fluxes and extreme waves. For the first time, SKIM will directly measure the ocean surface current vector from space. The main instrument on SKIM is a Ka-band conically scanning, multi-beam Doppler radar altimeter/wave scatterometer that includes a state-of-the-art nadir beam comparable to the Poseidon-4 instrument on Sentinel 6. The well proven Doppler pulse-pair technique will give a surface drift velocity representative of the top two meters of the ocean, after subtracting a large wave-induced contribution. Horizontal velocity components will be obtained with an accuracy better than 7 cm/s for horizontal wavelengths larger than 80~km and time resolutions larger than 15 days, with a mean revisit time of 4 days for of 99\% of the global oceans. This will provide unique and innovative measurements that will further our understanding of the transports in the upper ocean layer, permanently distributing heat, carbon, plankton, and plastics. SKIM will also benefit from co-located measurements of water vapor, rain rate, sea ice concentration, and wind vectors provided by the European operational satellite MetOp-SG(B), allowing many joint analyses. SKIM is one of the two candidate satellite missions under development for ESA Earth Explorer 9. The other candidate is the Far infrared Radiation Understanding and Monitoring (FORUM). The final selection will be announced by September 2019, for a launch in the coming decade.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-01-01
    Description: A new algorithm is derived for rain rate (RR) estimation from Advanced Microwave Sounding Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) measurements taken at 6.9, 7.3, and 10.65 GHz. The algorithm is based on the numerical simulation of brightness temperatures (TB) for AMSR2 lower frequency channels, using a simplified radiation transfer model. Simultaneous meteorological and hydrological observations, supplemented with modeled values of cloud liquid water content and rain rate values, are used for the calculation of an ensemble of AMSR2TBs and RRs. Ice clouds are not taken into account. AMSR2 brightness temperature differences at C- and X-band channels are then used as inputs to train a neural network (NN) function for RR retrieval. Validation is performed against Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Instrument (TMI) RR products. For colocated AMSR2-TMI measurements, obtained within 10 min intervals, errors are about 1 mm/h. The new algorithm is applicable for RR estimation up to 20 mm/h. ForRR10 mm/h the algorithm significantly underestimates TMI RR.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9309
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 9
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-01-01
    Description: We present an analysis of wind-sea and swell fields for mid-latitude and tropical Atlantic for the period 2002–2008 using a combination of satellite data (altimeter significant wave height and scatterometer surface winds) and model results (spectrum peak wave period and propagation direction). Results show a dominance of swell over wind-sea regimes throughout the year. A small but clear decrease in swell energy and an associated increase in wind-sea potential growth were observed in the NE trade winds zone. A seasonal summertime increase in wind-sea energy in the Amazon River mouth and adjacent shelf region and in African coast was apparent in the results, probably associated to a strengthening of the alongshore trade winds in these regions. Albeit with a significantly smaller energy contribution of wind-seas as compared to swell energy, we could say that a kind of mixed seas is more evident in the trade winds region, with the remaining area being highly dominated by swell energy. An analysis of wave-age shows the absence of young-seas. Only ~2% of all data points was classified as wind-sea, a classification confirmed by a fit to a theoretical relation between wind speed, peak period, and significant wave height for fully developed wind-seas.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9406
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9414
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Hindawi
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