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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 109 (2004): C03002, doi:10.1029/2003JC001962.
    Description: Pathways of Pacific Water flowing from the North Pacific Ocean through Bering Strait and across the Chukchi Sea are investigated using a two-dimensional barotropic model. In the no-wind case, the flow is driven only by a prescribed steady northward flow of 0.8 Sv through Bering Strait. The resulting steady state circulation consists of a broad northeasterly flow, basically following the topography, with a few areas of intensified currents. About half of the inflow travels northwest through Hope Valley, while the other half turns somewhat toward the northeast along the Alaskan coast. The flow through Hope Valley is intensified as it passes through Herald Canyon, but much of this flow escapes the canyon to move eastward, joining the flow in the broad valley between Herald and Hanna Shoals, another area of slightly intensified currents. There is a confluence of nearly all of the flow along the Alaskan coast west of Pt. Barrow to create a very strong and narrow coastal jet that follows the shelf topography eastward onto the Beaufort shelf. Thus in this no-wind case, nearly all of the Pacific Water entering the Chukchi Sea eventually ends up flowing eastward along the narrow Beaufort shelf, with no discernable flow across the shelf edge toward the interior Canada Basin. Travel times for water parcels to move from Bering Strait to Pt. Barrow vary tremendously according to the path taken; e.g., less than 6 months along the Alaskan coast, but about 30 months along the westernmost path through Herald Canyon. This flow field is relatively insensitive to idealized wind-forcing when the winds are from the south, west or north, in which cases the shelf transports tend to be intensified. However, strong northeasterly to easterly winds are able to completely reverse the flows along the Beaufort shelf and the Alaskan coast, and force most of the throughflow in a more northerly direction across the Chukchi Sea shelf edge, potentially supplying the surface waters of the interior Canada Basin with Pacific Water. The entire shelf circulation reacts promptly to changing wind conditions, with a response time of ~2–3 days. The intense coastal jet between Icy Cape and Pt. Barrow implies that dense water formed here from winter coastal polynyas may be quickly swept away along the coast. In contrast, there is a relatively quiet nearshore region to the west, between Cape Lisburne and Icy Cape, where dense water may accumulate much longer and continue to become denser before it is carried across the shelf.
    Description: Financial support was provided to PW by the Postdoctoral Scholar Program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), and the J. Seward Johnson Fund. Funding for DCC came through a grant from the Coastal Ocean Institute at WHOI.
    Keywords: Arctic Ocean ; Pacific Water ; Chukchi Sea
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 35 (2005): 1305-1317, doi:10.1175/JPO2744.1.
    Description: An idealized theoretical model is developed for the acceleration of a two-dimensional, stratified current over a uniformly sloping bottom, driven by an imposed alongshelf pressure gradient and taking into account the effects of buoyancy advection in the bottom boundary layer. Both downwelling and upwelling pressure gradients are considered. For a specified pressure gradient, the model response depends primarily on the Burger number S = Nα/f, where N is the initial buoyancy frequency, α is the bottom slope, and f is the Coriolis parameter. Without stratification (S = 0), buoyancy advection is absent, and the alongshelf flow accelerates until bottom stress balances the imposed pressure gradient. The e-folding time scale to reach this steady state is the friction time, h/r, where h is the water depth and r is a linear bottom friction coefficient. With stratification (S ≠ 0), buoyancy advection in the bottom boundary layer produces vertical shear, which prevents the bottom stress from becoming large enough to balance the imposed pressure gradient for many friction time scales. Thus, the alongshelf flow continues to accelerate, potentially producing large velocities. The acceleration increases rapidly with increasing S, such that even relatively weak stratification (S 〉 0.2) has a major impact. These results are supported by numerical model calculations.
    Description: Funding was provided by the Division of Ocean Sciences of the National Science Foundation under Grant OCE-0241292. DCC also received some support from the Office of Naval Research under Grants N00014-00-1-0210 and N00014-02-1-0767.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: 2nd ed.
    Description: Documentation and listings are presented for a sequence of computer programs to be used for problems in continental shelf dynamics. Three of the programs are to be used for computing properties of free and forced coastal-trapped waves. A final program may be used to compute wind-driven fluctuations over the continental shelf and slope. This second edition includes several minor revisions and corrections in the computer code and the documentation.
    Description: Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant OCE-08563
    Keywords: Ocean waves ; Continental shelf ; Computer programs ; Ocean waves
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Documentation and listings are presented for a sequence of computer programs to be used for problems in continental shelf dynamics. Three of the programs are to be used for computing properties of free and forced coastal-trapped waves. A final program may be used to compute wind-driven fluctuations over the continental shelf and slope.
    Description: Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation under grant Number OCE 84-08563.
    Keywords: Ocean waves ; Continental shelf ; Computer programs ; Ocean waves
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
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    AMS (American Meteorological Society)
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23 (11). pp. 2373-2391.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: A sigma-coordinate, primitive equation ocean circulation model is used to explore the problem of the remnant generation of trapped waves about a tall, circular, isolated seamount by an incident oscillatory barotropic current. The numerical solutions are used to extend prior studies into the fully nonlinear regime, and in particular to quantify and interpret the occurrence of residual circulation. Specific attention is also devoted to the dependence of the resonance and rectification mechanisms on stratification, forcing frequency, and choice of subgrid-scale viscous closure. Resonantly generated trapped waves of significant amplitude are found to occur broadly in parameter space; a precise match between the frequency of the imposed incident current and the frequency of the trapped free wave is not necessary to produce substantial excitation of the trapped wave. The maximum amplification factors produced in these numerical solutions, O(100) times the strength of the incident current, are consistent with previous studies. In the presence of nonlinear advection, strong residual currents are produced. The time-mean circulation about the seamount is dominated by a strong bottom-intensified, anticyclonic circulation closely trapped to the seamount. Maximum local time-mean current amplitudes are found to be as large as 37% of the magnitude of the propagating waves. In addition to the strong anticyclonic residual flow, there is a weaker secondary circulation in the vertical-radial plane characterized by downwelling over the top of the seamount at all depths. Maximum vertical downwelling rates of several tens of meters per day occur at the summit of the seamount. The vertical mass flux implied by this systematic downwelling is balanced by a slow radial flux of mass directed outward along the flanks of the seamount. Time-mean budgets for the radial and azimuthal components of momentum show that horizontal eddy fluxes of momentum are responsible for transporting net radial and azimuthal momentum from the far field to the upper flanks of the seamount. There, Coriolis and pressure gradient forces provide the dominant balances in the radial direction. However, the Coriolis force and viscous effects provide the primary balance for the azimuthal component.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1997-10-10
    Description: The approach of Visbeck, Marshall & Jones (1996) is used to explain the primary results of a recent laboratory study of isolated convection in a two-layer fluid reported by Narimousa (1996).
    Print ISSN: 0022-1120
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-7645
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2003-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2004-03-01
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1995-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1997-03-15
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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