IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 613: Fractionation, Bioaccessibility, and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Soil of an Urban Recreational Area Amended with Composted Sewage Sludge International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040613 Authors: Kai Yang Tao Zhang Yanqiu Shao Chao Tian Stephen Cattle Ying Zhu Jinjuan Song A composted sewage sludge (CSS) was added to the soil of an urban garden at 5%, 10%, and 25% (w/w soil) and stabilised for 180 days. Samples were then collected and analysed for total heavy metal concentrations, chemical fractions, and bioaccessibility, together with some physicochemical properties. The results showed that the total chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were increased with CSS addition rate. The CSS addition decreased the residual fractions of these four elements. The exchangeable Cr, Cu, and Pb fractions were very small or not detected, while Zn exhibited an increasing trend in its exchangeable fraction with CSS addition rate. The bioaccessibility of these four elements was increased with the CSS addition rate. Moreover, the Cr, Cu, and Zn bioaccessibility correlated positively with the total concentration, while the bioaccessibility of these four elements exhibited a negative correlation with the residual fraction. The fractionation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals may have also been influenced by pH, cation exchange capacity, and organic matter. The risk assessment code reflected the amended soil showed no or low environmental risks for Cr, Cu, and Pb and a medium risk for Zn. The hazardous index values and cancer risk levels indicated that the heavy metals in the soil amended with 25% CSS posed negligible potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to children and adults via incidental ingestion.
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering