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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-10-14
    Description: This paper reports the design of a microcoupler in the near-infrared region. The proposed structure consists of two alternately arranged complementary media. The complementary media, which consist of double-positive material and double-negative material, also can be made of a pair of single-negative materials. Simulation results show that the proposed structure has an excellent coupling efficiency compared to direct coupling. It has a maximum coupling efficiency closing to 1 at 1550 nm. As the total size of the coupling structure decreases, the passband exhibits a property of gradual blue shift. Therefore, we can design couplers operating in different frequency bands with high coupling efficiency. The influence of the permittivity and the thickness of each material layer on the coupling efficiency are also studied in detail. The proposed microcoupler has potential guidance in the design and development of high-performance coupling structures.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Forests, Vol. 9, Pages 306: Anthropogenic and Biophysical Factors Associated with Vegetation Restoration in Changting, China Forests doi: 10.3390/f9060306 Authors: Wenhui Wang Xiangqing Ma Syed Moazzam Nizami Chao Tian Futao Guo Changting has been promoted by the Chinese government as a demonstration for the soil and water conservation works in recent years. As the experience in Changting is now being explored and summarized and will be further promoted to the nation, it is important to understand the factors affecting the vegetation restoration process. Random forest and multiple linear regression approaches were applied to investigate the influential factors and their relative importance on the dynamic change of vegetation coverage of Changting during the period of 2000–2010. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to calculate Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) dynamics in response to topographic, climatic, infrastructure, and economic factors. The results show that overall, there was a dramatic increase in the FVC of Changting from 2000–2010. The percentage of the FVC-increased area reached 87.86% with an increase rate of 0.142. Factors such as precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope and financial investment for soil conservation were important drivers of local FVC change. Our findings reveal that climatic factors along with the strict implementation of government policies played a role in driving vegetation cover dynamics, and the continuation of implementation of soil erosion management in Changting is required.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4907
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-22
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 17, Pages 2409: Adaptive Microwave Staring Correlated Imaging for Targets Appearing in Discrete Clusters Sensors doi: 10.3390/s17102409 Authors: Chao Tian Zheng Jiang Weidong Chen Dongjin Wang Microwave staring correlated imaging (MSCI) can achieve ultra-high resolution in real aperture staring radar imaging using the correlated imaging process (CIP) under all-weather and all-day circumstances. The CIP must combine the received echo signal with the temporal-spatial stochastic radiation field. However, a precondition of the CIP is that the continuous imaging region must be discretized to a fine grid, and the measurement matrix should be accurately computed, which makes the imaging process highly complex when the MSCI system observes a wide area. This paper proposes an adaptive imaging approach for the targets in discrete clusters to reduce the complexity of the CIP. The approach is divided into two main stages. First, as discrete clustered targets are distributed in different range strips in the imaging region, the transmitters of the MSCI emit narrow-pulse waveforms to separate the echoes of the targets in different strips in the time domain; using spectral entropy, a modified method robust against noise is put forward to detect the echoes of the discrete clustered targets, based on which the strips with targets can be adaptively located. Second, in a strip with targets, the matched filter reconstruction algorithm is used to locate the regions with targets, and only the regions of interest are discretized to a fine grid; sparse recovery is used, and the band exclusion is used to maintain the non-correlation of the dictionary. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed approach can accurately and adaptively locate the regions with targets and obtain high-quality reconstructed images.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-05-08
    Description: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/jm500258v
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: Recently, the short wavelength laser is believed to have a promising prospect in fast ignition for reducing the conflict between laser energy requirement and electron stopping range. Here we investigate the influence of laser wavelength and intensity in the angular dispersion of hot electrons. Both our theoretical model and numerical simulations show that the angular dispersion would increase rapidly with the shortening of laser wavelength due to the Weibel instability, while the laser intensity has little effect on it. These results have important implications for fast ignition.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-11-08
    Description: We demonstrated highly sensitive detection of explosive dissolved in solvent with a portable spectroscopy system (Q-MACS) by tracing the explosive byproduct, N 2 O, in combination with a pulsed electric discharge system for safe explosive decomposition. Using Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the gas was monitored and analyzed by Q-MACS and the presence of the dissolved explosive clearly detected. While HMX presence could be identified directly in the air above the solutions even without plasma, much better results were achieved under the decomposition. The experiment results give an estimated detection limit of 10 ppb, which corresponds to a 15 pg of HMX.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-08-14
    Description: The irradiation uniformity of a cone-in-shell target directly driven by laser beams has been considered. First, a model is established to include the influence of the cone on laser beam propagation. Then, the irradiation uniformity on the target surface outside the cone during the initial imprinting phase is analyzed, and highly uniform irradiation on the target surface outside the cone is achieved by optimizing the intensity distribution within laser beams, as well as the polar direct drive displacement. As an illustrative example, direct drive irradiation uniformity of a typical cone-in-shell target is improved for Shenguang III laser facility, the illumination non-uniformity is reduced from 5.8% to 1.1%. Irradiation on the cone surface outside the target is also analyzed, and it is found that for the laser-target configuration considered in this work, a gold cone thicker than 50 μ m is needed to avoid shock breakout. Moreover, sensitivity to beam uncertainties (power imbalance and pointing error) is analyzed, indicating that this scheme can tolerate a certain amount of beam errors.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-08-18
    Description: A scheme for enhancing the electron injection charge in a laser-driven bubble acceleration is proposed. In this scheme, a thin foil target is placed in front of a gas target. Upon interaction with an ultra-intense laser pulse, the foil emits electrons with large longitudinal momenta, allowing them to be trapped into the transmitted shaped laser-excited bubble in the gaseous plasma target. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is used to demonstrate this scheme, and an electron beam with a total electron number of 4.21 × 10 8   μ m − 1 can be produced, which is twice the number of electrons produced without the foil. Such scheme may be widely used for applications that require high electron yields such as positron and gamma ray generation from relativistic electron beams interacting with solid targets.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 613: Fractionation, Bioaccessibility, and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Soil of an Urban Recreational Area Amended with Composted Sewage Sludge International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040613 Authors: Kai Yang Tao Zhang Yanqiu Shao Chao Tian Stephen Cattle Ying Zhu Jinjuan Song A composted sewage sludge (CSS) was added to the soil of an urban garden at 5%, 10%, and 25% (w/w soil) and stabilised for 180 days. Samples were then collected and analysed for total heavy metal concentrations, chemical fractions, and bioaccessibility, together with some physicochemical properties. The results showed that the total chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were increased with CSS addition rate. The CSS addition decreased the residual fractions of these four elements. The exchangeable Cr, Cu, and Pb fractions were very small or not detected, while Zn exhibited an increasing trend in its exchangeable fraction with CSS addition rate. The bioaccessibility of these four elements was increased with the CSS addition rate. Moreover, the Cr, Cu, and Zn bioaccessibility correlated positively with the total concentration, while the bioaccessibility of these four elements exhibited a negative correlation with the residual fraction. The fractionation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals may have also been influenced by pH, cation exchange capacity, and organic matter. The risk assessment code reflected the amended soil showed no or low environmental risks for Cr, Cu, and Pb and a medium risk for Zn. The hazardous index values and cancer risk levels indicated that the heavy metals in the soil amended with 25% CSS posed negligible potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to children and adults via incidental ingestion.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-12-08
    Description: Algorithms, Vol. 10, Pages 104: Contract-Based Incentive Mechanism for Mobile Crowdsourcing Networks Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a10030104 Authors: Nan Zhao Menglin Fan Chao Tian Pengfei Fan Mobile crowdsourcing networks (MCNs) are a promising method of data collecting and processing by leveraging the mobile devices’ sensing and computing capabilities. However, because of the selfish characteristics of the service provider (SP) and mobile users (MUs), crowdsourcing participants only aim to maximize their own benefits. This paper investigates the incentive mechanism between the above two parties to create mutual benefits. By modeling MCNs as a labor market, a contract-based crowdsourcing model with moral hazard is proposed under the asymmetric information scenario. In order to incentivize the potential MUs to participate in crowdsourcing tasks, the optimization problem is formulated to maximize the SP’s utility by jointly examining the crowdsourcing participants’ risk preferences. The impact of crowdsourcing participants’ attitudes of risks on the incentive mechanism has been studied analytically and experimentally. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contract design scheme for the crowdsourcing incentive.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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