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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The microwave brightness temperature for snow fields was studied assuming that the snow cover consists of closely packed scattering spheres which do not interact coherently. The Mie scattering theory was used to compute the volume scattering albedo. It is shown that in the wavelength range from 0.8 to 2.8 cm, most of the micro-radiation emanates from a layer 10 meters or less in thickness. It is concluded that it is possible to determine snow accumulation rates as well as near-surface temperature.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: X-910-75-36 , NASA-TM-X-70871
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Synoptic views of the entire polar regions of earth were obtained free of the usual persistent cloud cover using a scanning microwave radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm on board the Nimbus-5 satellite. Three different views at each pole are presented utilizing data obtained at approximately one-month intervals during the winter of 1972-1973. The major discoveries resulting from an analysis of these data are as follows: (1) Large discrepancies exist between the climatic norm ice cover depicted in various atlases and the actual extent of the canopies. (2) The distribution of multiyear ice in the north polar region is markedly different from that predicted by existing ice dynamics models. (3) Irregularities in the edge of the Antarctic sea ice pack occur that have neither been observed previously nor anticipated. (4) The brightness temperatures of the Greenland and Antarctica glaciers show interesting contours probably related to the ice and snow morphologic structure.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70493 , X-652-73-269
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  • 3
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Equilibrium distribution functions for electrons in ionospheric plasma calculated for energy interval of 0 to 15 eV utilization data collected in pulse probe experiment
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: TR-71-009 , NASA-CR-119031
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A microscopic model was developed to study the microwave emission from snow. In this model, the individual snow particles are considered to be the scattering centers. Mie scattering theory for spherical particles is then used to compute the volume scattering and extinction coefficients of the closely packed scattering spheres, which are assumed not to interact coherently. The results of the computations show significant volume scattering effects in the microwave region which result in low observed emissivities from cold, dry snow. In the case of wet snow, the microwave emissivities are increased considerably, in agreement with earlier experimental observations in which the brightness temperatures have increased significantly at the onset of melting.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: PAPER-27 , Operational Appl. of Satellite Snowcover Observations; p 399-407
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Synoptic views of the entire polar regions of earth have been obtained free of the usual persistent cloud cover using a scanning microwave radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm on board the Nimbus-5 satellite. Three different views at each pole are presented utilizing data obtained at approximately one-month intervals from December 1972 to February 1973. Large discrepancies exist between the long-term ice cover depicted in various atlases and the actual extent of the canopies. The distribution of multiyear ice in the north polar region is markedly different from that predicted by existing ice dynamics models. Irregularities in the edge of the Antarctic sea ice pack occur that have neither been observed previously nor anticipated. The brightness temperatures of the Greenland and Antarctic glaciers show interesting contours probably related to the ice and snow morphologic structure.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: American Meteorological Society; vol. 55
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Using 1.55 cm observations of the earth made by the Electrically Scanned Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) experiment on Nimbus 5, the appearance of the earth from Venus is simulated. A single antenna unable to resolve the earth's disk would give a time-averaged disk temperature of 183 K. In one rotation, the disk temperature would vary from 194 K to 172 K. During the 1973 inferior conjunction, a radio telescope with 1 arc sec resolution would resolve most of the major surface features of the earth.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Icarus; 24; Feb. 197
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: A technique called passive microwave remote sensing can be used to obtain a new view of the planet earth by means of radio telescopes carried aboard artificial satellites. An important relationship between the observed radio brightness temperature and the surface conditions provides the basis for the new technique. A radio image is presented of the entire earth on the basis of Nimbus microwave-image data taken January 12-16, 1973.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Sky and Telescope; 49; Jan. 197
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Principles pertinent to the utilization of 1.55 cm wavelength radiation emanating from the surface of the earth for studying the changing characteristics of polar sea ice are briefly reviewed. Recent data obtained at that wavelength with an imaging radiometer on-board the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to illustrate how the seasonal changes in extent of sea ice in both polar regions may be monitored free of atmospheric interference. Within a season, changes in the compactness of the sea ice are also observed from the satellite. Some substantial areas of the Arctic sea ice canopy identified as first-year ice in the past winter were observed not to melt this summer, a graphic illustration of the eventual formation of multiyear ice in the Arctic. Finally, the microwave emissivity of some of the multiyear ice areas near the North Pole was found to increase significantly in the summer, probably due to liquid water content in the firm layer.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-652-73-341 , NASA-TM-X-70529 , Interdisciplinary Symp. on Advanced Concepts and Techniques in the Study of Snow and Ice Resources
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A theoretical model for calculating microwave radiative transfer in raining atmospheres is developed. These calculations are compared with microwave brightness temperatures at a wavelength of 1.55 cm measured on the Nimbus-5 satellite and rain rates derived from WSR-57 meteorological radar measurements. A specially designed ground based verification experiment was also performed wherein upward viewing microwave brightness temperature measurements at wavelengths of 1.55 cm and 0.81 cm were compared with directly measured rain rates.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70904 , X-911-75-72
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The atmospheric circulation which occurred during the Bering Sea Experiment, 15 February to 10 March 1973, in and around the experiment area is analyzed and related to the macroscale morphology and dynamics of the sea ice cover. The ice cover was very complex in structure, being made up of five ice types, and underwent strong dynamic activity. Synoptic analyses show that an optimum variety of weather situations occurred during the experiment: an initial strong anticyclonic period (6 days), followed by a period of strong cyclonic activity (6 days), followed by weak anticyclonic activity (3 days), and finally a period of weak cyclonic activity (4 days). The data of the mesoscale test areas observed on the four sea ice option flights, and ship weather, and drift data give a detailed description of mesoscale ice dynamics which correlates well with the macroscale view: anticyclonic activity advects the ice southward with strong ice divergence and a regular lead and polynya pattern; cyclonic activity advects the ice northward with ice convergence, or slight divergence, and a random lead and polynya pattern.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70648 , X-910-74-141
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