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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Dual-polarization weather radars have evolved significantly in the last three decades culminating in the operational deployment by the National Weather Service. In addition to operational applications in the weather service, dual-polarization radars have shown significant potential in contributing to the research fields of ground based remote sensing of rainfall microphysics, study of precipitation evolution and hydrometeor classification. Furthermore the dual-polarization radars have also raised the awareness of radar system aspects such as calibration. Microphysical characterization of precipitation and quantitative precipitation estimation are important applications that are critical in the validation of satellite borne precipitation measurements and also serves as a valuable tool in algorithm development. This paper presents the important role played by dual-polarization radar in validating space borne precipitation measurements. Starting from a historical evolution, the various configurations of dual-polarization radar are presented. Examples of raindrop size distribution retrievals and hydrometeor type classification are discussed. The quantitative precipitation estimation is a product of direct relevance to space borne observations. During the TRMM program substantial advancement was made with ground based polarization radars specially collecting unique observations in the tropics which are noted. The scientific accomplishments of relevance to space borne measurements of precipitation are summarized. The potential of dual-polarization radars and opportunities in the era of global precipitation measurement mission is also discussed.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-25
    Type: paper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-26
    Type: paper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Papers on Ka-band propagation measurements using the ACTS propagation terminal and the Colorado State University CHILL multiparameter radar and on Space Communications Technology Center Florida Propagation Program are discussed. Topics covered include: microwave radiative transfer and propagation models; NASA propagation terminal status; ACTS channel characteristics; FAU receive only terminal; FAU terminal status; and propagation testbed.
    Keywords: COMMUNICATIONS AND RADAR
    Type: JPL, Proceedings of the Seventeenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 17) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop p 307-320 (SEE N94-14; JPL, Proceedings of
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: GPM meets Level 1 science requirements for rain estimation based on the strong performance of its radar algorithms. Changes in the V5 GPROF algorithm should correct errors in V4 and will likely resolve GPROF performance issues relative to L1 requirements. L1 FOV Snow detection largely verified but at unknown SWE rate threshold (likely 〈 0.5 1 mm/hr/liquid equivalent). Ongoing work to improve SWE rate estimation for both satellite and GV remote sensing.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN35965 , International Precipitation Working Group Workshop; 3-7 Oct. 2016; Bologna; Italy
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Raindrop size distributions (RSDs) are often estimated using surface raindrop sampling devices (e.g., disdrometers) or optical array (2D-PMS) probes. A number of authors have used these measured distributions to compute certain higher-order RSD moments that correspond to radar reflectivity, attenuation, optical extinction, etc. Scatter plots of these RSD moments versus disdrometer-measured rainrates are then used to deduce physical relationships between radar reflectivity, attenuation, etc., which are measured by independent instruments (e.g., radar), and rainrate. In this paper RSDs of the gamma form as well as radar reflectivity (via time series simulation) are simulated to study the correlation structure of radar estimates versus rainrate as opposed to RSD moment estimates versus rainrate. The parameters N0, D0 and m of a gamma distribution are varied over the range normally found in rainfall, as well as varying the device sampling volume. The simulations are used to explain some possible features related to discrepancies which can arise when radar rainfall measurements are compared with surface or aircraft-based sampling devices.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: AD-A194004 , Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (ISSN 0739-0572); 4; 464-478
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: As a component of the Earth's hydrologic cycle, and especially at higher latitudes,falling snow creates snow pack accumulation that in turn provides a large proportion of the fresh water resources required by many communities throughout the world. To assess the relationships between remotely sensed snow measurements with in situ measurements, a winter field project, termed the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Cold Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx), was carried out in the winter of 2011-2012 in Ontario, Canada. Its goal was to provide information on the precipitation microphysics and processes associated with cold season precipitation to support GPM snowfall retrieval algorithms that make use of a dual-frequency precipitation radar and a passive microwave imager on board the GPM core satellite,and radiometers on constellation member satellites. Multi-parameter methods are required to be able to relate changes in the microphysical character of the snow to measureable parameters from which precipitation detection and estimation can be based. The data collection strategy was coordinated, stacked, high-altitude and in-situ cloud aircraft missions with three research aircraft sampling within a broader surface network of five ground sites taking in-situ and volumetric observations. During the field campaign 25 events were identified and classified according to their varied precipitation type, synoptic context, and precipitation amount. Herein, the GCPEx fieldcampaign is described and three illustrative cases detailed.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN19435
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A method of predicting attenuation on microwave Earth/spacecraft communication links, over wide areas and under various atmospheric conditions, has been developed. In the area around the ground station locations, a nearly horizontally aimed polarimetric S-band ground radar measures the specific differential phase (Kdp) along the Earth-space path. The specific attenuation along a path of interest is then computed by use of a theoretical model of the relationship between the measured S-band specific differential phase and the specific attenuation at the frequency to be used on the communication link. The model includes effects of rain, wet ice, and other forms of precipitation. The attenuation on the path of interest is then computed by integrating the specific attenuation over the length of the path. This method can be used to determine statistics of signal degradation on Earth/spacecraft communication links. It can also be used to obtain real-time estimates of attenuation along multiple Earth/spacecraft links that are parts of a communication network operating within the radar coverage area, thereby enabling better management of the network through appropriate dynamic routing along the best combination of links.
    Keywords: Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking
    Type: MSC-23340 , NASA Tech Briefs, November 2003; 21-22
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Strategic roadmaps for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS) enterprise support near-term high-frequency communication systems that provide moderate to high data rates with dependable service. Near-earth and human planetary exploration will baseline Ka-Band, but may ultimately require the use of even higher frequencies. Increased commercial demand on low-frequency earth-space bands has also led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like K u - and K,- band. Data is taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), which operates at 13.8 GHz, and the true radar reflectivity profile is determined along the PR beam via low-frequency ground based polarimetric observations. The specific differential phase (Kdp) is measured along the beam and a theoretical model is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k). This technique, called the k-Kdp method, uses a Fuzzy-Logic model to determine the hydrometeor type along the PR beam from which the appropriate k-Kdp relationship is used to determine k and, ultimately, the total path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on PR measurements. Measurements from PR and the NCAR S-POL radar were made during the TEFLUN-B experiment that took place near Melbourne, FL in 1998, and the TRMM-LBA campaign near Ji-Parana, Brazil in 1999.
    Keywords: Communications and Radar
    Type: AIAA Paper 2002-1905 , JSC-CN-7340 , AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference Committee (ICSSC); 12-15 May 2002; Montreal; Canada
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Expanding human presence in space, and enabling the commercialization of this frontier, is part of the strategic goals for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. Future near-Earth and planetary missions will support the use of high-frequency Earth-space communication systems. Additionally, increased commercial demand on low-frequency Earth-space links in the S- and C-band spectra have led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like Ku and Ka-band. Attenuation of high-frequency signals, due to a precipitating medium, can be quite severe and can cause considerable disruptions in a communications link that traverses such a medium. Previously, ground radar measurements were made along the Earth-space path and compared to satellite beacon data that was transmitted to a ground station. In this paper, quantitative estimation of the attenuation along the propagation path is made via inter-comparisons of radar data taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and ground-based polarimetric radar observations. Theoretical relationships between the expected specific attenuation (k) of spaceborne measurements with ground-based measurements of reflectivity (Zh) and differential propagation phase shift (Kdp) are developed for various hydrometeors that could be present along the propagation path, which are used to estimate the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on the PR return echo. Resolution volume matching and alignment of the radar systems is performed, and a direct comparison of PR return echo with ground radar attenuation estimates is made directly on a beam-by-beam basis. The technique is validated using data collected from the TExas and Florida UNderflights (TEFLUN-B) experiment and the TRMM large Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) campaign. Attenuation estimation derived from this method can be used for strategiC planning of communication systems for future HEDS missions.
    Keywords: Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking
    Type: JSC-CN-7441 , Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Science Conference; 22-26 Jul. 2002; Honolulu, HI; United States
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