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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: For a wide variety of atmospheric species including CO2, HNO3, and SO2, dissolution in seawater or cloudwater followed by hydrolysis or chemical reaction represents a primary pathway for removal from the atmosphere. In order to determine if this mechanism can also remove significant amounts of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's), fluorocarbons (HFC's), and their degradation products, an investigation was undertaken as part of the Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS). In this investigation, the rates at which CHCl2CF3 (HCFC-123), CCl2FCH3 (HCFC-141b), CClF2CH3 (HCFC-142b), CHClF2 (HCFC-22), CHClFCF3 (HCFC-124) CH2FCF3 (HFC-134a) CHF2CH3 (HFC-152a), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), and CH3CCl3 can be dissolved in the oceans and in cloudwater were estimated from the species' thermodynamic and chemical properties using simple mathematical formulations to simulate the transfer of gases from the atmosphere to the ocean or cloudwater. The ability of cloudwater and rainwater to remove gas phase degradation products of these compounds was also considered as was the aqueous phase chemistry of the degradation products. The results of this investigation are described.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone: 1989, Volume 2. Appendix: AFEAS Report; p 271-295
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Increased understanding of the chemical phenomena occurring in the troposphere was the research goal. Emphasis was placed on tropospheric impact on environmental quality, including public health, agriculture, climate, and weather.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: L-13855 , NASA-RP-1062
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: An investigation was conducted to determine whether nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are abundant enough to have a significant impact upon the ambient photochemistry. The vertical distribution of C2H6, C2H2, C3H8, C4H10, and C5H12 in the altitude range from 0 to 40 km was calculated in this connection. A one-dimensional steady state model with coupled photochemistry and vertical transport was employed in the investigation. The calculations imply that measurable quantities of relatively unreactive NMHC, especially C2H6 and C2H2, may be present in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. The results indicate, however, that NMHC are not likely to have a large impact on the background photochemistry of the troposphere, although local effects near source regions are probable. The findings support the current practice of many modelers who neglect NMHC in their calculations.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 83; Feb. 20
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: A model coupling photochemistry and vertical transport in the troposphere has been used to investigate the magnitude of possible future perturbations to atmospheric CH4. The response of atmospheric CH4 to an increase in the concentration of CO or to a variation in stratospheric O3 is studied. Both of the above mechanisms, which could be caused by man's activities, arise because a change in the concentration of tropospheric OH will lead to a change in the CH4 abundance. The calculations imply that a perturbation of about 30-40% in atmospheric CH4 could occur if stratospheric O3 were perturbed by 10% or if man-made CO continued to increase. The possible consequences of a CH4 perturbation may entail a perturbation in stratospheric photochemistry or in the thermal balance of the atmosphere.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 82; Apr. 20
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The rate of odd nitrogen (NOx) production by electrical discharge through air was theoretically and experimentally estimated to be about 60,000 trillion NOx molecules per joule. The theoretical treatment employed a cylindrical shock-wave solution to calculate the rate of NOx production in high temperature reactions. The limits obtained were experimentally verified by subjecting a regulated air flow to electrical discharges followed by a measurement of NOx production using chemiluminescence. These measurements also indicated that water vapor content has no detectable effect on the NOx production rate. The results imply that lightning is a significant source of NOx, producing about 30-40 megatons NOx-N per year and possibly accounting for as much as 50% of the total atmospheric NOx source.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences; 34; Jan. 197
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The daytime electron temperature profile of the Jovian ionosphere was calculated, taking into account the effects of thermal conduction and heat inflow from the plasmasphere. The photoelectron fluxes and electron heating rates were determined by using the two-stream approach of Banks and Nagy (1970) and Nagy and Banks (1970). The calculated electron temperatures were found to follow the neutral temperature up to an altitude slightly above the electron density peak, while at higher altitudes they were significantly enhanced above the assumed neutral temperature value.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 81; Nov. 1
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The existence of tropospheric-stratospheric feedback mechanisms affecting variations in stratospheric ozone indicates the need to model the complete tropospheric-stratospheric system. For instance, a decrease in stratospheric ozone results in increased photolytic destruction of nitrous oxide in the troposphere and thereby reduced production of nitric oxide in the stratosphere. Estimates indicate that this mechanism will result in a recovery in atmospheric ozone of about 6 to 13 percent of the initial perturbation.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Science; 190; Dec. 26
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  • 8
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The role of nitrogen oxides in the tropospheric photochemical system is re-evaluated in the light of recent measurements of the rate constants for two key reactions. A model for nitrogen oxides is discussed which yields surface NO(x) (NO+NO2) levels approaching 1 ppb in NO(x) source regions but less than 0.1 ppb outside source regions. Applying the new rate coefficients implies increased radical concentrations and a more intense O3 and CO photochemistry. Even for densities of 0.1 ppb or less, NO(x) still leads to significant local O3 production and conversion of HO2 to OH. Unrealistic O3 profiles are obtained with the new rate coefficients for surface NO(x) densities of about 1 ppb, while reasonable agreement with observation is obtained with lower NO(x) densities. Feedback processes between CO, NO(x), OH, and CH4 are also discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters; 5; Jan. 197
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The budget of tropospheric ozone is re-examined in the light of lower observed nitrogen oxide densities and revised reaction rates. To estimate the relative importance of transport and photochemistry, model calculations are presented which determine one-dimensional vertical ozone profiles at midlatitudes for equinoctial conditions. These calculations imply that both photochemistry and transport are important in controlling the abundance of tropospheric ozone. It is estimated that photochemical processes produce about 0.6 times 10 to the eleventh and destroy about 1.4 times 10 to the eleventh tropospheric ozone molecules per sq cm per sec, while mixing processes transport about 1.4 times 10 to the eleventh ozone molecules per sq cm per sec from the stratosphere into the troposphere and ground level fluxes destroy about 0.6 times 10 to the eleventh ozone molecules per sq cm per sec. The sensitivity of our model calculations to transport parameters, key rate coefficients, and nitrogen oxide densities are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 82; Apr. 20
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The thermodynamic properties of several water-soluble gases are reviewed to determine the likely effect of the atmospheric water cycle on their vertical profiles. It is found that gaseous HCl, HNO3, and HBr are sufficiently soluble in water to suggest that their vertical profiles in the troposphere have a similar shape to that of water vapor. It is predicted that HCl, HNO3, and HBr exhibit a steep negative gradient with altitude roughly equal to the altitude gradient of water vapor. Therefore, ground-based sources of inorganic chlorine, odd nitrogen, and inorganic bromine compounds are not likely to affect the stratosphere directly in the mean. Calculations also show that while SO2 and NH3 are significantly affected by the atmospheric water cycle, their abundances may not decrease with altitude as rapidly as does that of water vapor.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters; 2; Aug. 197
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