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  • 1
    Call number: M 95.0412
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 95 S.
    Series Statement: UMI Dissertation Services
    Classification: B.4.2.
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract During 14–16 September 1988, a large intracaldera avalanche and an eruption of basaltic tephra and lava at Fernandina volcano, Galapagos, produced the most profound changes within the caldera since its collapse in 1968. A swarm of eight earthquakes (m b 4.7–5.5) occurred in a 14 h period on 24 February 1988 at Fernandina, and two more earthquakes of this size followed on 15 April and 20 May, respectively. On 14 September 1988, another earthquake (m b 4.6) preceded a complex series of events. A debris avalanche was generated by the failure of a fault-bounded segment of the east caldera wall, approximately 2 km long and 300 m wide. The avalanche deposit is up to 250 m thick and has an approximate volume of 0.9 km3. The avalanche rapidly displaced a preexisting lake from the southeast end of the caldera floor to the northwest end, where the water washed up against the lower part of the caldera wall, then gradually seeped into the avalanche deposit and was completely gone by mid-January 1989. An eruption began in the caldera within about 1–2 h of the earthquake, producing a vigorous tephra plume for about 12 h, then lava flows during the next two days. The eruption ended late on 16 September. Most of the eruptive activity was from vents on the caldera floor near the base of the new avalanche scar. Unequivocal relative timing of events is difficult to determine, but seismic records suggest that the avalanche may have occurred 1.6 h after the earthquake, and field relations show that lava was clearly erupted after the avalanche was emplaced. The most likely sequence of events seems to be that the 1988 feeder dike intruded upward into the east caldera wall, dislocated the unstable wall block, and triggered the avalanche. The avalanche immediately exposed the newly emplaced dike and initiated the eruption. The exact cause of the earthquakes is unknown.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 350 (1991), S. 416-418 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The lavas that were erupted during the 1980s occur as a series of pillow mounds and ridges between 45á°00.5' N and 45á°09.5' N along the northern Cleft segment (Fig. 1). The evidence for the recent eruption of these lavas was first discovered through a discrepancy between ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Our understanding of submarine volcanic eruptions has improved substantially in the past decade owing to the recent ability to remotely detect such events and to then respond rapidly with synoptic surveys and sampling at the eruption site. But these data are necessarily limited to observations ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Maps of the eruptive vents on the active shield volcanoes of Fernandina and Isabela islands, Galapagos, made from aerial photographs, display a distinctive pattern that consists of circumferential eruptive fissures around the summit calderas and radial fissures lower on the flanks. On some volcano flanks either circumferential or radial eruptions have been dominant in recent time. The location of circumferential vents outside the calderas is independent of caldera-related normal faults. The eruptive fissures are the surface expression of dike emplacement, and the dike orientations are interpreted to be controlled by the state of stress in the volcano. Very few subaerial volcanoes display a pattern of fissures similar to that of the Galapagos volcanoes. Some seamounts and shield volcanoes on Mars morphologically resemble the Galapagos volcanoes, but more specific evidence is needed to determine if they also share common structure and eruptive style.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 13 (2012): Q0AF07, doi:10.1029/2012GC004211.
    Description: The output of gas and tephra from volcanoes is an inherently disorganized process that makes reliable flux estimates challenging to obtain. Continuous monitoring of gas flux has been achieved in only a few instances at subaerial volcanoes, but never for submarine volcanoes. Here we use the first sustained (yearlong) hydroacoustic monitoring of an erupting submarine volcano (NW Rota-1, Mariana arc) to make calculations of explosive gas flux from a volcano into the ocean. Bursts of Strombolian explosive degassing at the volcano summit (520 m deep) occurred at 1–2 min intervals during the entire 12-month hydrophone record and commonly exhibited cyclic step-function changes between high and low intensity. Total gas flux calculated from the hydroacoustic record is 5.4 ± 0.6 Tg a−1, where the magmatic gases driving eruptions at NW Rota-1 are primarily H2O, SO2, and CO2. Instantaneous fluxes varied by a factor of ∼100 over the deployment. Using melt inclusion information to estimate the concentration of CO2 in the explosive gases as 6.9 ± 0.7 wt %, we calculate an annual CO2 eruption flux of 0.4 ± 0.1 Tg a−1. This result is within the range of measured CO2 fluxes at continuously erupting subaerial volcanoes, and represents ∼0.2–0.6% of the annual estimated output of CO2from all subaerial arc volcanoes, and ∼0.4–0.6% of the mid-ocean ridge flux. The multiyear eruptive history of NW Rota-1 demonstrates that submarine volcanoes can be significant and sustained sources of CO2 to the shallow ocean.
    Description: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, the NOAA Vents Program, and the National Science Foundation (OCE-0751776) for support.
    Description: 2013-05-29
    Keywords: Gas flux ; Ocean acoustics ; Seafloor volcanism
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 12 (2013): 1609–1625, doi:10.1002/ggge.20110.
    Description: We combine high-resolution bathymetry acquired using the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle ABE with digital seafloor imagery collected using the remotely operated vehicle ROPOS across the axial valley of the Southern Explorer Ridge (SER) to infer the recent volcanic and tectonic processes. The SER is an intermediate spreading ridge located in the northeast Pacific. It hosts the Magic Mountain hydrothermal vent. We reconstruct the unfaulted seafloor terrain at SER based on calculations of the vertical displacement field and fault parameters. The vertical changes between the initial and the restored topographies reflect the integrated effects of volcanism and tectonism on relief-forming processes over the last 11,000–14,000 years. The restored topography indicates that the axial morphology evolved from a smooth constructional dome 〉500 m in diameter, to a fault-bounded graben, ~500 m wide and 30–70 m deep. This evolution has been accompanied by changes in eruptive rate, with deposition of voluminous lobate and sheet flows when the SER had a domed morphology, and limited-extent low-effusion rate pillow eruptions during graben development. Most of the faults shaping the present axial valley postdate the construction of the dome. Our study supports a model of cyclic volcanism at the SER with periods of effusive eruptions flooding the axial rift, centered on the broad plateau at the summit of the ridge, followed by a decrease in eruptive activity and a subsequent dominance of tectonic processes, with minor low-effusion rate eruptions confined to the axial graben. The asymmetric shape of the axial graben supports an increasing role of extensional processes, with a component of simple shear in the spreading processes.
    Description: Funding for the 2002 Submarine Ring of Fire expedition was from the NOAA Ocean Exploration Program and NOAA’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. This work was supported by a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Post-doctoral Scholarship, CNRS and Université de Bretagne Occidentale, France.
    Description: 2013-11-29
    Keywords: Mid-ocean ridge ; Lava flow ; Spreading ; Axial valley ; Explorer ridge ; Dike ; Cyclic
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Oceanography Society, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 23, 1 (2010): 38-39.
    Description: Axial Seamount is a hotspot volcano superimposed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Due to its robust magma supply, it rises ~ 800 m above the rest of JdFR and has a large elongate summit caldera with two rift zones that parallel and overlap with adjacent segments of the spreading center.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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