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  • 1
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Dopaminergic system ; Miosis ; Neurotensin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Advances in Space Research 1 (1981), S. 33-37 
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters A 25 (1967), S. 636-637 
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters A 34 (1971), S. 297-298 
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Type II diabetes mellitus ; Acarbose ; Evidence-based medicine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To assess the efficacy, safety and extent of perceived indications of acarbose, a new antidiabetic agent, under routine clinical practice conditions in an unselected Northern Italian population of type II diabetic patients. Methods: The study population was assigned to three different groups according to the physician's clinical judgement: group A (acarbose considered as an elective treatment); group B (acarbose considered to be of uncertain benefit); group C (acarbose deemed not to be appropriate). Group B patients were randomized either to continue their standard treatment or to add acarbose to it. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus were recruited from 17 diabetes outpatient clinics from one Italian region (Lombardy). A total of 1027 patients were recruited (group A: 283; group C: 494; group B: 250, of whom 124 were randomly assigned to standard treatment + acarbose and 126 to standard treatment alone). Acarbose was administered for 1 year at a median dose of 100 mg 3 times daily. Drug efficacy was evaluated in terms of mean HbA1c, pre- and post-prandial glycaemic values. Additional endpoints were the proportion of patients with HbA1c levels below 8% at the end of the study period and the proportion of subjects who needed a modification in the standard treatment. The safety and tolerability profiles of the drug were also investigated. Data on HbA1c, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels were analysed over time using repeated-measures analysis [Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models]. Results: The analysis of Group B showed that, after treatment for 1 year, the mean reduction in HbA1c levels in the acarbose group with respect to the control group was 0.30% (95% confidence limits −0.60 +0.02; P = 0.07), while the mean reduction in post-prandial glycaemia was 17 mg · dl−1 (95% c.l. −33.5 −0.8; P = 0.04). No difference resulted for fasting blood glucose levels. When looking at the baseline HbA1c levels, it emerged that the mean benefit associated with the use of acarbose was 0.14% (95% c.l. −0.6 +0.28; P = 0.5) in patients with HbA1c levels below 8%, 0.28% (95% c.l. −0.6 +0.05; P = 0.09) in those with values between 8% and 9.9% and 0.65% (95% c.l. −1.36 +0.06; P = 0.07) in those with values ≥10%. Only patients treated with diet ± oral anti-diabetic agents (OAA) benefited from acarbose treatment (mean benefit = 0.37%, 95% c.l. −0.65 −0.08), while no effect was shown for insulin-treated subjects. The proportion of patients with HbA1c below 8% increased from 31% to 44% in the acarbose group and from 40% to 45% in the control group (absolute difference between baseline and end-of-study values = 8.0% in favour of acarbose-treated patients; P = 0.058). Patients treated with acarbose were significantly more likely to undergo a dose reduction in concomitant diabetic treatments compared with the control group; they were also less likely to require an increase in the dose of standard treatment and to start insulin during the study period. One third of the patients could not assume the drug for the whole study period, mainly due to gastrointestinal side-effects. Conclusions: The design adopted in this study allowed an integrated evaluation of the overall effectiveness of acarbose in clinical practice. The benefits of the drug in an unselected population of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients are significant but of marginal clinical relevance. Only a better definition of the subgroups of patients who are more likely to benefit from long-term treatment, particularly through possible postponement of secondary OAA failure, will allow a reliable definition of the cost-effectiveness of this complementary component of anti-diabetic strategy.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Key words Apoptosis ; Oogenesis ; Nurse cells ; Drosophila melanogaster
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  In Drosophila a remarkable feature of oogenesis is the regression of the nurse cells after dumping their cytoplasmic contents into the oocyte. We have studied the nature of this process at the late stages of egg chamber development. In egg chambers DAPI staining shows highly condensed chromatin from stage 12 and TUNEL labelling shows DNA fragmentation up to stage 14. Gel electrophoresis of the end-labelled DNA, extracted from isolated egg chambers at the same stages of development, shows a ladder typical of apoptotic nuclei. This provides evidence that, during Drosophila oogenesis, the nurse cells undergo apoptosis. Apoptotic nuclei have also been detected in dumping-defective egg chambers, indicating that the cytoplasmic depletion of nurse cells is concurrent with but apparently not the cause of the process.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Multiphoton processes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Riassunto Il metodo della «space translation» (ST) usato frequentemente nell'interazione radiazione-materia in regimi di alta intensità è riconsiderato. Alcune limitazioni del programma di lavoro della ST nel calcolo delle ampiezze di transizione sono messe in evidenza. Viene anche considerata la teoria della diffusione da potenziale nell'ambito del metodo della ST e viene discusso un recente trattamento approssimato.
    Abstract: Резюме Заново рассмтривается метод трансляции пространства, часто используемый для изучения взаимодействия излучения с веществом в области высоких интенсивностей. Отмечаются ограничения обычного метода трансляции пространства, а также трудности, возникающие при вычислении амплитуд переходов. Исследуется теория потенциального рассеяния в присутствии сильного поля излучения в рамках метода трансляции иространства, а также обсуждаются недавние приближенные рассмотрения.
    Notes: Summary The space translation (ST) method frequently used to treat the radiation-matter interaction in the high-intensity domain is reconsidered. Limitations of the usual ST working program are pointed out together with the related difficulties in the evaluation of transition amplitudes. The theory of potential scattering in the presence of a strong radiation field within the ST method is considered as well, and a recent approximate treatment discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Atomic multiphoton processes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Riassunto Si presenta un trattamento teorico, al prim'ordine nella dinamica della collisione, per analizzare il ruolo della polarizzazione del campo elettrico nelle collisioni atomiche in presenza di un laser non risonante. Sono presentate espressioni generali per calcolare le modifiche dello spettro e le funzioni d'onda per un livellon qualsiasi di atomi idrogenoidi in presenza di un laser, linearmente o circolarmente polarizzato. Sono riportati calcoli numerici per eccitazione di atomi di idrogeno allo staton=2 per collisione con elettroni. Le due polarizzazioni danno notevoli differenze i) nelle modifiche dello specttro atomico, ii) nella struttura delle sezioni d'urto e iii) neirisultati numerici. In particolare, solo nel caso di laser linearmente polarizzato la distribuzione degli elettroni diffusi ad un fissato angolo ha una struttura di linee egulmente spaziate, ma di differente altezza. (La spaziatura tra le linee è uguale all'energia di un fotone laser ℏw e la loro altezza dipende dal numero di elettroni che dopo la collisione hanno una data energia.) Per il caso di laser circolarmente polarizzato lo spettro non ha tale struttura regolare. Poichè tra i processi di collisione in presenza di un campo laser al momento sono piú facilmente osservabili gli spettri guadagno-perdita di energia, si ritiene che i risultati riportati possano essere di stimolo per nuovi esperimenti in questa nuova classe di collisioni atomiche. Nelle linee essenziali si riporta anche la teoria per il caso di laser risonante conn-fotoni.
    Abstract: Резюме Предлагается теоретическое рассмотрение, в первом порядке, процесса соударения электронов с атомами в присутствии нерезонансного поляризованного лазерного излучения. Приводятся общие выражения для вычисления модифицированного спектра и волновых функций для уровня атомного водорода с произвольнымn в присутствии лазерного поля, которое может быть линеино или цирклулярно поляризовано. Проводятся вычисления воздуждения атомов водорода на уровеньn=2 при соударении с электроном. Обнаружено, что указанные две поляризации дают большие различия: 1) в изменениях атомных спектров, 2) в структуре поперечных сечений и 3) в численных результатах. В частности, только для линейной поляризации электрическое распределение рассеяных на фиксированный угол электронов имеет структуру последовательности равноотстоящих линий с разными высотами. (Интервал между линиями равен энергии лазерного фотона ℏω, а высота линии определяется числом электронов с заданной энергией.) Для циркулярной поляризации не предсказывается такое регулярное поведение в спектре. Так как энергетические спектры рассеяных электронов, в процессах соударения частиц с атомами в присутствии лазерного излучения, могут быть легко измерены, то полученные результаты могут служить стимулом для новых исследований нового класса атомных соударений. Предлагается также теория для многофотонного резонансного случая.
    Notes: Summary A theoretical treatment, of first order in the collision dynamics, is presented to analyse the role of electric polarization in offresonance laser-assisted atomic collisions. General expressions are presented for evaluating the modified spectrum and wave functions for anyn level of hydrogenic atoms in the presence of a laser, taken to be linearly and circularly polarized. Specific calculations are carried out for excitation of hydrogen atoms to the leveln=2 by electron impact. The two polarizations are found to yield large differences i) in the atomic-spectrum modifications, ii) in the structure of the cross-sections and iii) in the numerical results. In particular, only for linear polarization, the distribution in energy of the scattered electrons at a fixed scattering angle has the structure of a series of equally spaced lines of different height (the spacing being equal to the laser photon energy ℏw and the height of the line accounting for the number of final electrons with a given energy). For circular polarization no such a regular pattern is predicted. Since, among laser-assisted particle-atom collisions, at present energy gain-loss spectra of scattered electrons are most easily observed, it is hoped that the reported results may serve as a stimulus for new observations in this new class of atomic collisions. The theory to treat the multiphoton resonance case is outlined too.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 42.65.Jx ; 78.20.Nv ; 78.65.Jd
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The temperature field generated by the weak absorption of a gaussian laser beam in an optically and thermally thin film bounded by two transparent plates is discussed. An analytical solution of the problem is presented together with an algorithm for the numerical integration. The influence of the finite thermal conductivity of the plates is shown in an example.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 66.10.Cb ; 42.65.Cq ; 78.20.Nv
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In forced Rayleigh scattering of mixtures or suspensions the temperature gratings generate, by the Soret effect, concentration gratings that may be very important since they produce both a phase and an amplitude grating superimposed on the principal one. The experimental evidence of their influence was given by Thyagarajan and Lallemand using a mixture of carbondisulfide and ethanol. In this paper we study the temporal behaviour of the concentration grating versus the sample properties and its effect on the detected diffracted beam. Explicit expressions are given for the output intensity taking into account both the generated amplitude and phase gratings.
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