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  • 1
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: yeast ; Candida utilis ; alcoholic fermentation ; Kluyver effect ; oxygen limitation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The facultatively fermentative yeast Candida utilis exhibits the Kluyver effect for maltose: this disaccharide is respired and assimilated but, in contrast to glucose, it cannot be fermented. To study the mechanism of the Kluyver effect, metabolic responses of C. utilis to a transition from aerobic, sugar-limited growth to oxygen-limited conditions were studied in chemostat cultures. Unexpectedly, the initial response of maltose-grown cultures to oxygen limitation was very similar to that of glucose-grown cultures. In both cases, alcoholic fermentation occurred after a lag phase of 1 h, during which glycerol, pyruvate and D-lactate were the main fermentation products. After ca. 10 h the behaviour of the maltose- and glucose-grown cultures diverged: ethanol disappeared from the maltose-grown cultures, whereas fermentation continued in steady-state, oxygen-limited cultures grown on glucose. The disappearance of alcoholic fermentation in oxygen-limited chemostat cultures growing on maltose was not due to a repression of the synthesis of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The results demonstrate that the Kluyver effect for maltose in C. utilis does not reflect an intrinsic inability of this yeast to ferment maltose, but is caused by a regulatory phenomenon that affects a key enzyme in maltose metabolism, probably the maltose carrier. The observed kinetics indicate that this regulation occurs at the level of enzyme synthesis rather than via modification of existing enzyme activity.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Kluyveromyces ; Candida utilis ; Kluyver effect ; chemostat ; biomass ; whey ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Many facultatively fermentative yeast species exhibit a “Kluyver effect”: even under oxygen-limited growth conditions, certain disaccharides that support aerobic, respiratory growth are not fermented, even though the component monosaccharides are good fermentation substrates. This article investigates the applicability of this phenomenon for high-cell-density cultivation of yeasts. In glucose-grown batch cultures of Candida utilis CBS 621, the onset of oxygen limitation led to alcoholic fermentation and, consequently, a decrease of the biomass yield on sugar. In maltose-grown cultures, alcoholic fermentation did not occur and oxygen-limited growth resulted in high biomass concentrations (90 g dry weight L-1 from 200 g L-1 maltose monohydrate in a simple batch fermentation). It was subsequently investigated whether this principle could also be applied to Kluyveromyces species exhibiting a Kluyver effect for lactose. In oxygen-limited, glucose-grown chemostat cultures of K. wickerhamii CBS 2745, high ethanol concentrations and low biomass yields were observed. Conversely, ethanol was absent and biomass yields on sugar were high in oxygen-limited chemostat cultures grown on lactose. Batch cultures of K. wickerhamii grown on lactose exhibited the same growth characteristics as the maltose-grown C. utilis cultures: absence of ethanol formation and high biomass yields. Within the species K. marxianus, the occurrence of a Kluyver effect for lactose is known to be strain dependent. Thus, K. marxianus CBS 7894 could be grown to high biomass densities in lactose-grown batch cultures, whereas strain CBS 5795 produced ethanol after the onset of oxygen limitation and, consequently, yielded low amounts of biomass. Because the use of yeast strains exhibiting a Kluyver effect obviates the need for controlled substrate-feeding strategies to avoid oxygen limitation, such strains should be excellently suited for the production of biomass and growth-related products from low-cost disaccharide-containing feedstocks. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: on-line control ; pH control ; growth monitoring ; proton titration ; yeast ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The amount of acid or base consumed in yeast cultures has been recently assigned to the pathway of nitrogen assimilation under respiratory conditions with no contribution by carbon metabolism (Castrillo et al., 1995). In this investigation, experiments under respirofermentative conditions have shown that production or consumption of ethanol does not contribute significantly to the specific rate of proton production (qH+), thus extending the previously obtained relationships for all aerobic conditions in which other major acid/base contributions are not involved. Tests in batch and chemostat culture confirm the validity of qH+ as a formal control parameter in aerobic fermentations. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:445-450, 1998.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Crabtree effect ; yeast ; biomass ; Kluyveromyces lactis ; oxygen ; pyruvate decarboxylase ; regulation ; fermentation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Kluyveromyces lactis is an important industrial yeast, as well as a popular laboratory model. There is currently no consensus in the literature on the physiology of this yeast, in particular with respect to aerobic alcoholic fermentation (‘Crabtree effect’). This study deals with regulation of alcoholic fermentation in K. lactis CBS 2359, a proposed reference strain for molecular studies. In aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures (D=0·05-0·40 h-1) growth was entirely respiratory, without significant accumulation of ethanol or other metabolites. Alcoholic fermentation occurred in glucose-grown shake-flask cultures, but was absent during batch cultivation on glucose in fermenters under strictly aerobic conditions. This indicated that ethanol formation in the shake-flask cultures resulted from oxygen limitation. Indeed, when the oxygen feed to steady-state chemostat cultures (D=0·10 h-1) was lowered, a mixed respirofermentative metabolism only occurred at very low dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 1% of air saturation). The onset of respirofermentative metabolism as a result of oxygen limitation was accompanied by an increase of the levels of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. When aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures (D=0·10 h-1) were pulsed with excess glucose, ethanol production did not occur during the first 40 min after the pulse. However, a slow aerobic ethanol formation was invariably observed after this period. Since alcoholic fermentation did not occur in aerobic batch cultures this is probably a transient response, caused by an imbalanced adjustment of enzyme levels during the transition from steady-state growth at μ=0·10 h-1 to growth at μmax. It is concluded that in K. lactis, as in other Crabtree-negative yeasts, the primary environmental trigger for occurrence of alcoholic fermentation is oxygen limitation. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The influence of physiological parameters such as carbon substrate flux and O2 uptake rates on energy metabolism are reported with reference to biomass productivity in whey chemostat culture. The combined results show that oxidoreductive energy metabolism may be attained independently of the yeast reaching its maximum respiratory capacity. A novel metabolic interpretation is presented proposing that a relative imbalance between glycolysis and subsequent oxidative steps alone is sufficient to account for the observed results. By means of a mathematical model the results could be reproduced under all experimental conditions. The new interpretation provides an insight into the manner in which energy mettbolism is regulated and influences growth-related process Kluyveromyces marxianus, as well as other yeasts with similar physiological characteristics.
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  • 6
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