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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In the early 1970's, a fleet of supersonic aircraft flying in the lower stratosphere was proposed. A large fleet was never built for economic, political, and environmental reasons. Technological improvements may make it economically feasible to develop supersonic aircraft for current markets. Some key results of earlier scientific programs designed to assess the impact of aircraft emissions on stratospheric ozone are reviewed, and factors that must be considered to assess the environmental impact of aircraft exhaust are discussed. These include the amount of nitrogen oxides injected in the stratosphere, horizontal transport, and stratosphere/troposphere assessment models are presented. Areas in which improvements in scientific understanding and model representation must be made to reduce the uncertainty in model calculations are identified.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA-RP-1251 , NAS 1.61:1251
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Near-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy in the wavelength range from 330 to 370 nm was used to measure O3, NO2, OClO, and BrO at McMurdo Station (78S) during 1987. Visible absorption measurements of O3, NO2, and OClO were also obtained using the wavelength range from about 403 to 453 nm. These data are described and compared to observations obtained in 1986. It is shown that comparisons of observations in the two wavelength ranges provide a sensitive measure of the altitude where the bulk of atmospheric absorption takes place.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Polar Ozone Workshop. Abstracts; p 118
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The task consisted of conducting mechanical and thermal tests to establish design allowables data on a new room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone adhesive, X3-6004. Low modulus, coupled with relatively low density and good low-temperature properties of this adhesive, places it in contention as a candidate for attaching reusable surface insulation on the space shuttle. Data obtained show that the modulus values of X3-6004 are significantly lower than those of RTV-560 and the other three adhesives characterized at test temperatures from 550 to -175 F. At -175, -200 and -270 F, the modulus of X3-6004 is approximately the same as GE RTV-560 and the other three silicone adhesives. The X3-6004 adhesive exhibits good processing properties. It has a 12 percent lower density than RTV-560. Although lower in overall strength properties as compared to the other adhesives in the program, X3-6004 has adequate adhesion to 2024T81 aluminum to compete as an adhesive for attaching reusable surface insulation. It does exhibit some tendency to revert and soften at temperatures above 350 F when in a confined area.
    Keywords: MATERIALS, NONMETALLIC
    Type: NASA-CR-128888
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of the diurnal variations of OClO and BrO during austral spring, 1987 using long-path visible and near-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy are presented and compared to simplified model calculations. It is shown that care must be taken to compare model calculations and measurements along the line of sight of the instrument. Evening twilight observations of OClO are shown to be broadly consistent with current photochemical schemes, assuming ClO and BrO levels near 50 mb of about 0.5 ppbv and 7 pptv, respectively, throughout the observing period from late Aug. to mid-Oct. Nighttime observations of OClO obtained using the moon as a light source display evidence for growth through the night in late-Aug., but not in late-Sept. Further, the observed morning twilight OClO abundances are in agreement with model calculations in late August, but generally fall below in late September and October. Observations of BrO in mid-Sept. systematically show far greater evening twilight than morning twilight abundances.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Polar Ozone Workshop. Abstracts; p 139
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results on NO2 instruments are reported from the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) program in summer 1986. The instruments tested were (1) a two-photon LIF system using a laser for NO2-NO photolysis, (2) a chemiluminescence (CL) detector using FeSO4 for NO2-NO conversion, (3) a CL detector using an arc lamp for NO2-NO photolysis, and (4) a tunable-laser-diode multipath-absorption system. The procedures for the CITE 2 ground-based and flight tests are described in detail, and the results are presented in extensive graphs. Instrument (2) was eliminated because the FeSO4 converted atmospheric PAN to NO, resulting in spuriously high NO2 values. The remaining instruments gave readings in 30-40-percent agreement at NO2 mixing ratios of 100-200 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). At ratios below 50 pptv, the correlation among the measurements was very poor, with a tendency for system (4) to give higher values than (1) or (3).
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10103-10
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Two techniques designed for measurements of NO(x (NO + NO2) were intercompared during aircraft flights made in the spring of 1984 in the middle free troposphere over the eastern Pacific Ocean and southwestern U.S. One NO chemiluminescence instrument was equipped with a ferrous sulphate converter, another with a photolytic converter. The ferrous sulphate-equipped instrument was apparently much less specific for NO2. It registered levels about three times larger than the photolytic converter and gave NO2/NO ratios that were much larger than photochemical calculations would indicate as reasonable. Additionally, the results imply that active NO(x) was only 10-20 percent of the total odd nitrogen in the middle free troposphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 15803-15
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Measurements of NO and O3 are presented from 13 aircraft flights made over the Pacific Ocean in the autumn of 1983 during one phase of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment. All of the flights were made between 15 deg and 42 deg N and from the coast of California to west of the Hawaiian Islands. Within the upper marine boundary layer the median daytime mixing ratio of NO was near 1 part per trillion by volume (pptv). Values of NO less than 10 pptv were often observed up to altitudes near 6 km. Thus for the location and season of the measurements, a net photochemical destruction of O3 would be anticipated for the boundary layer region and to altitudes of 2-3 km. At higher altitudes of 7-11 km in the free troposphere, larger mixing ratios and greater variability were usually observed for NO. Both features are consistent with observed examples of injection of NO and O3 from the lower stratosphere and with the injection of NO from towering, electrically active, cumulonimbus clouds.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 92; 2025-204
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  • 8
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: In order to gain insight into the dynamics of biperiodic aerospace structures, a variety of one- and two-dimensional biperiodic structures are considered. It is shown that bands in which natural frequencies lie for periodic structures are further subdivided as a consequence of the biperiodicity. Analytical solutions for the modes and frequencies of finite-length one-dimensional biperiodic structures are obtained for general boundary conditions. A transmission method is developed to simplify the application of boundary conditions. Some modes are found to occur at frequencies outside the frequency bands predicted for biperiodic structures. Two-dimensional biperiodic crossed beam grillage and truss structures are considered in the present study.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: Journal of Sound and Vibration; 81; Apr. 8
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10179-10
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results are reported from airborne measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and CO obtained in the free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) over the western U.S. and eastern Pacific during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) in summer 1986. The aircraft instrumentation and the CITE 2 flight protocols are described, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs. Over the ocean the median mixing ratios for NO and NO2 were found to be 4.0 and 10.4 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), respectively, in the BL and 12.4 and 18.0 pptv in the FT; the corresponding values over land were 34.5 and 75.0 pptv in the BL and 13.0 and 36.0 pptv in the FT. in continental air masses. NO(x) is shown to be positively correlated with O3 and CO and negatively correlated with dewpoint over the ocean, whereas over land NO(x) was positively correlated with O3, CO, and dewpoint.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10205-10
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