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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Saturn's largest moon, Titan, remains an enigma, explored only by remote sensing from Earth, and by the Voyager and Cassini spacecraft. The most puzzling aspects include the origin of the molecular nitrogen and methane in its atmosphere, and the mechanism(s) by which methane is maintained in ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: For more than two decades, the staff of the Space Physics Research Laboratory (SPRL) has collaborated with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in the design and implementation of Langmuir probes (LP). This program of probe development under the direction of Larry Brace of GSFC has evolved methodically with innovations to: improve measurement precision, increase the speed of measurement, and reduce the weight, size, power consumption and data rate of the instrument. Under contract NAG5-419 these improvements were implemented and are what characterize the Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). Using data from the Langmuir Probe on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Brace and Walter Hoegy of GSFC demonstrated a novel method of monitoring the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux. This led to the idea of developing a sensor similar to a Langmuir probe specifically designed to measure solar EUV (SEUV) that uses a similar electronics package. Under this contract, a combined instrument package of the ALP and SEUV sensor was to be designed, constructed, and laboratory tested. Finally the instrument was to be flight tested as part of sounding rocket experiment to acquire the necessary data to validate this method for possible use in future earth and planetary aeronomy missions. The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the electronics hardware and software for this instrument, since the actual sensors were suppied by GSFC. Due to budget constraints, only a flight model was constructed. These electronics were tested and calibrated in the laboratory, and then the instrument was integrated into the rocket payload at Wallops Flight Facility where it underwent environmental testing. After instrument recalibration at SPRL, the payload was reintegrated and launched from the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks Alaska. The payload was successfully recovered and after refurbishment underwent further testing and developing to improve its performance for future use.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-191972 , NAS 1.26:191972
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Most of the understanding of the thermosphere resulted from the analysis of data accrued through the Atmosphere Explorer satellites, the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite, and observations from rockets, balloons, and ground based instruments. However, new questions were posed by the data that have not yet been answered. The mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been less thoroughly studied because of the difficulty of accessibility on a global scale, and many rather fundamental characteristics of these regions are not well understood. A wide variety of measurement platforms can be used to implement various parts of a measurement strategy, but the major thrusts of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program would require Explorer-class missions. A remote sensing mission to explore the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and one and two Explorer-type spacecraft to enable a mission into the thermosphere itself would provide the essential components of a productive program of exploration of this important region of the upper atomsphere. Theoretical mission options are explored.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Solar-Terrestrial Science Strategy Workshop; p 9-13
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The wake environment of the space shuttle is analyzed to determine whether it is feasible to perform ultrahigh vacuum experiments in or near the payload bay with the shuttle oriented such that the payload bay faces the antivelocity direction. Several mechanisms were considered by which molecules could approach the payload bay from this direction and their relative contributions to the wake environment are estimated. These mechanisms include ambient atmospheric molecules that have velocities in excess of the orbital velocity which can overtake the shuttle, ambient atmospheric molecules that are backscattered by collisions with the shuttle induced atmosphere, and self scattering from the induced atmosphere. These estimates are compared with the measurements made with the collimated mass spectrometer which was part of the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor flown on several of the early shuttle flights. Although the collimated mass spectrometer was not designed for this purpose and the instrument background for the species for which the collimator is effective is above the expected levels, upper limits can be established for these species in the wake environment which are consistent with the analysis. There was considerably more helium and argon observed in the wake direction than was predicted, however. Possible origins of these gases are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: NASA-TM-86509 , NAS 1.15:86509
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution combines the ion temperature-determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram directions. The retarding ion mass spectrometer, its operational modes and calibration are described as well as the data reduction plan, and the anticipated results.
    Keywords: OPTICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82418
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An empirical global model for magnetically quiet conditions has been derived from longitudinally averaged N2, O, and He densities by means of an expansion in spherical harmonics. The data were obtained by the OGO-6 neutral mass spectrometer and cover the altitude range 400 to 600 km for the period 27 June 1969 to 13 May 1971. The accuracy of the analytical description is of the order of the experimental error for He and O and about three times experimental error for N2, thus providing a reasonable overall representation of the satellite observations. Two model schemes are used: one representing densities extrapolated to 450 km and one representing densities extrapolated to 120 km with exospheric temperatures inferred from N2 densities. Using the best fit model parameters the global thermospheric structure is presented in the form of a number of contour plots.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-621-73-37 , NASA-TM-X-66183
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-07-01
    Description: Acoustic wind measurement using exhaust noise of large booster rockets
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY
    Type: REPT-0787-3-F , NASA-CR-102791
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: Technique for measuring winds using Saturn exhaust noise - acoustic technique, wind profile determined during Saturn SA-9 flight, and data reduction method
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-76411
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-06-27
    Description: Nike-Tomahawk launched soundings over Cape Kennedy to study composition and diurnal variations of thermosphere
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-61481
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: An array of 5 autonomous spectrometers, the imaging spectrometric observatory covers a broad wavelength range (approximately 200 to 12,000 A), has a resolution selectable down to approximately 0.5 A, and a dynamic range of approximately 10 to the 7th power and is designed to select experiment measurement sequences by software control. Because current models of thermospheric ionic processes produce too much N2(+) ionization, the N2(+) reaction with O and the chemistry of metastable (N(+) ions and of O2(+) ions are objects of study on Spacelab 1.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Space Plasma Phys. Active expt.; p 26-56
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