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  • 1
    ISSN: 0168-9525
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Trends in Genetics 4 (1988), S. 106-111 
    ISSN: 0168-9525
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Age-structured population ; age-related mating success ; assortative mating ; generation overlap ; Drosophila melanogaster
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A series of experiments on age-related mating success and productivity provides evidence for assortative mating among three out of four age-classes inD. melanogaster. The preferred mating does not always result in the highest productivity. Three age classes of males contribute to reproduction while only females of the youngest age-class are involved. The progeny size is more affected by the age of the females than that of males. It is assumed that these findings must have important implications for generation overlap in natural populations.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Morphometry ; geographic races ; chromosome transfers ; Drosophila melanogaster ; natural populations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The genetic basis of three morphological traits (ovariole number, sternopleural bristle number and wing length) ofDrosophila melanogaster has been investigated in natural populations that show great differences in these traits, i. e. Bordeaux (France) and Loua (Congo). F1 and F2 crosses, and chromosome substitutions between these two populations, were analysed. Maternal and/or X chromosome effects were found for sternopleural bristle number and wing length. For all traits, significant effects from each of the three chromosomes were found, but in general only one or two chromosomes had a major effect. Moreover, in all cases significant interactions between chromosomes were observed, suggesting the existence of epistatic effects. Our results are discussed and compared to those obtained from the analysis of selected laboratory strains.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsTc1-mariner ; Filamentous fungi ; Fusarium oxysporum ; Transposase ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The transposable element impala is a member of the widespread superfamily of Tc1-mariner transposons, identified in the genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This element is present in a low copy number and is actively transposed in the F.␣oxysporum strain F24 that is pathogenic for melons. The structure of the impala family was investigated by cloning and sequencing all the genomic copies. The analysis revealed that this family is composed of full-length and truncated copies. Four copies contained a long open reading frame that could potentially encode a transposase of 340 amino acids. The presence of conserved functional domains (a nuclear localisation signal, a catalytic DDE domain and a DNA-binding domain) suggests that these four copies may be autonomous elements. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the impala copies defined three subfamilies, which differ by a high level of nucleotide polymorphism (around 20%). The coexistence of these divergent subfamilies in the same genome may indicate that the impala family is of ancient origin and/or that it arose by successive horizontal transmission events.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Transposon ; Filamentous fungus ; Tc1/mariner ; IS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A transposable element has been isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana by trapping it in the nitrate reductase structural gene, which has been cloned from this species. The element had inserted in the first exon of the nia gene and appeared to have duplicated the sequence TA at the site of insertion. It was 3336 bp long with 30-bp imperfect, inverted, terminal repeats. The element, called hupfer, contained an open reading frame encoding a 321-amino acid protein similar to the IS630- or mariner-Tc1-like transposases, and a residual sequence of about 2 kb which was not significantly similar to any published sequence. There are fewer than five copies of this transposable element present per genome in the fungus.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordshobo dysgenic system ; Permissivity ; Drosophila melanogaster ; Variability ; Aging effect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The hobo transposon is responsible for one of the three hybrid dysgenic systems that have been described in Drosophila melanogaster. Most studies on the hobo dysgenic system have been carried out using the PM system as a reference. However, these two systems differ significantly. In particular, several studies have failed to find any correlation between the molecular structures of hobo elements, the instability of the transposon and the incidence of gonadal dysgenic (GD) sterility. On the other hand, no study of the ability of females to permit hobo activity in their progeny when they are crossed with males harboring active hobo elements (permissivity) has yet been reported. In order to investigate the parameters involved in hobo permissivity, four E strains were studied with regard to the molecular nature of their hobo sequences and the GD sterility induced by a controlled source of hobo transposase. We show that hobo permissivity varies both within and between E strains. Moreover, permissivity decreases with age in E females. Our results are discussed with respect to similar phenomena that have been described in relation to the reactivity of the IR dysgenic system.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0022-1910
    Keywords: Drosophila ; desiccation ; starvation ; temperature
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Four natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster, three from Guadeloupe and one from Martinique (French West Indies), were studied with respect to four types of genetically determined traits, namely allozyme frequencies, morphology, ethanol tolerance, and oviposition rhythm. These populations were compared to European (France) and tropical African populations, and, with respect to allozymes alone, to an American population. The four populations from the West Indies were found to be genetically similar; this may reflect a common historical origin, or an adaptive response to similar environmental pressures or possibly some gene flow between the two islands. The comparisons with distant populations led to different conclusions depending upon the trait considered. In the case of allozymes, flies from the West Indies were more similar to tropical African populations than to an American population from Texas, but the main difference observed was in comparison with European populations. The morphology of the West Indies flies resembled a smaller, tropical type, but the size was even smaller than observed in Africa. Both ethanol tolerance and oviposition rhythm were intermediate between flies from tropical Africa and Europe. All these results can be explained in terms of interactions between selection imposed by a tropical environment and the genetic properties of the founder population which first colonized the islands.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Keywords: Mariner ; Drosophila ; molecular evolution ; transposable element
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The population biology and molecular evolution of the transposable element mariner has been studied in the eight species of the melanogaster subgroup of the Drosophila subgenus Sophophora. The element occurs in D. simulans, D. mauritiana, D. sechellia, D. teissieri, and D. yakuba, but is not found in D. melanogaster, D. erecta, or D. orena. Sequence comparisons suggest that the mariner element was present in the ancestor of the species subgroup and was lost in some of the lineages. Most species contain both active and inactive mariner elements. A deletion of most of the 3′ end characterizes many elements in D. teissieri, but in other species the inactive elements differ from active ones only by simple nucleotide substitutions or small additions/deletions. Active mariner elements from all species are quite similar in nucleotide sequence, although there are some-species-specific differences. Many, but not all, of the inactive elements are also quite closely related. The genome of D. mauritiana contains 20–30 copies of mariner, that of D. simulans 0–10, and that of D. sechellia only two copies (at fixed positions in the genome). The mariner situation in D. sechellia may reflect a reduced effective population size owing to the restricted geographical range of this species and its ecological specialization to the fruit of Morinda citrifolia.
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