The Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission extends NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) series of campaigns. TRACE-P was an aircraft-based campaign that was part of a larger ground-based and aircraft-based program (APARE) under the auspices of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) program. TRACE-P was designed to (1) determine the chemical composition of Asian outflow over the western Pacific, and to (2) determine the chemical evolution of the Asian outflow. These objectives were addressed through a variety of observations and numerical modeling exercises. In particular, the goals included sampling strategies that would improve understanding of the budgets of odd hydrogen species (OH and HO2), budgets of NOx (NO, NO2, and their reservoirs), and impacts of oxidants produced in the outflow on air quality in the United States. The NASA DC-8 and P-3B aircraft were deployed in the March and April, 2001 out of primary bases of operation in Hong Kong and Yokota Air Base in Japan. These two aircraft have complementary capabilities which allow high altitude and long range impacts, as well as low altitude, local impacts to be assessed. In order to quantify the composition and evolution of Asian outflow, it is important to quantify as many species as possible including photochemically active species (e.g. NO2, CH2O, O3, acetone, etc.), sources species (VOCs, CO, NOx, SO2, aerosols), reactive intermediates including free radicals (OH, HO2, RO2, and their reservoirs), and end products (nitric acid, sulfuric acid, secondary aerosols, etc.). The more complete the measurement suite, the more tightly constrained the numerical modeling can be (within the uncertainties of the measurements). The numerical models range in sophistication from simple steady state box models (as employed in this study) to multi-dimensional chemical transport models. Data were collected on approximately 20 flights of the DC-8 and 21 flights of the P-3B. Observations from both aircraft were used in the present analysis, but primarily focused on the P-3B flights since that was the platform on which the peroxy radical instrumentation was based.
Meteorology and Climatology