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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The results of a dynamic/thermodynamic numerical model of Arctic sea ice are compared with satellite images from the Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer. The model combines aspects of two previous sea ice models those of Parkinson and Washington and Ling, Rasmussen, and Campbell. A solid/fluid model basically follows the formulation of the Parkinson and Washington model with the addition of the constitutive equation and equation of state from the Ling model. The Parkinson and Washington model simulates the seasonal cycle of sea ice thicknesses and concentrations with a horizontal resolution of roughly 200 km and a timestep of 8 hours. The thermodynamics are calculated through energy balances at the interfaces between ice and air, water and ice, and water and air. The ice dynamics are calculated through a momentum equation balancing air stress, water stress, dynamic topography, and Coriolis force, with an adjustment for internal ice resistance.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Geological Survey US Geological Survey Polar Res. Symp.; p 40-41
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to determine the extent and distribution of Antarctic sea ice. The characteristics of the southern ocean, the mathematical formulas used to obtain quantitative sea ice concentrations, the general characteristics of the seasonal sea ice growth/decay cycle and regional differences, and the observed seasonal growth/decay cycle for individual years and interannual variations of the ice cover are discussed. The sea ice data from the ESMR are presented in the form of color-coded maps of the Antarctic and the southern oceans. The maps show brightness temperatures and concentrations of pack ice averaged for each month, 4-year monthly averages, and month-to-month changes. Graphs summarizing the results, such as areas of sea ice as a function of time in the various sectors of the southern ocean are included. The images demonstrate that satellite microwave data provide unique information on large-scale sea ice conditions for determining climatic conditions in polar regions and possible global climatic changes.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-SP-459 , LC-83-600167 , NAS 1.21:459
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Synoptic views of the entire polar regions of earth were obtained free of the usual persistent cloud cover using a scanning microwave radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm on board the Nimbus-5 satellite. Three different views at each pole are presented utilizing data obtained at approximately one-month intervals during the winter of 1972-1973. The major discoveries resulting from an analysis of these data are as follows: (1) Large discrepancies exist between the climatic norm ice cover depicted in various atlases and the actual extent of the canopies. (2) The distribution of multiyear ice in the north polar region is markedly different from that predicted by existing ice dynamics models. (3) Irregularities in the edge of the Antarctic sea ice pack occur that have neither been observed previously nor anticipated. (4) The brightness temperatures of the Greenland and Antarctica glaciers show interesting contours probably related to the ice and snow morphologic structure.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70493 , X-652-73-269
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Measurements of the microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice were made with aircraft at 8 wavelengths ranging from 0.510 cm to 2.81 cm. The expected contrast in emissivities between ice and water was observed at all wavelengths. Distributions of sea ice and open water were mapped from altitudes up to 11 km in the presence of dense cloud cover. Different forms of ice also exhibited strong contrasts in emissivity. Emissivity differences of up to 0.2 were observed between two types of ice at 0.811 cm wavelength. The higher emissivity ice type is tentatively identified as having been formed more recently than the lower emissivity ice.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-65742 , X-651-71-417
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-08
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. Coupling of the aircraft data with the ground truth observations proved to be highly successful with interesting results being obtained with IR and SLAR passive microwave techniques, and standard photography. Of particular interest were the results of the PMIS system which operated at 10.69 GHz with both vertical and horizontal polarizations. This was the first time that dual polarized images were obtained from floating ice. In both sea and lake ice, it was possible to distinguish a wide variety of thin ice types because of their large differences in brightness temperatures. It was found that the higher brightness temperature was invariably obtained in the vertically polarized mode, and as the age of the ice increases the brightness temperature increases in both polarizations. Associated with this change in age, the difference in temperature was observed as the different polarizations decreased. It appears that the horizontally polarized data is the most sensitive to variations in ice type for both fresh water and sea ice. The study also showed the great amount of information on ice surface roughness and deformation patterns that can be obtained from X-band SLAR observations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-147446 , E76-10161
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Variations in the extent and concentration of sea ice cover on the Southern Ocean are described for the three-year period 1973-75 using information derived from the Nimbus-5 passive microwave imager.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 4th NASA Weather and Climate Program Sci. Rev.; p 335-340
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Marshall Univ. Proc. of the Natl. Conf. on Energy Resource Management, Vol. 1; p 19-31
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: It is noted that the key factor in any accuracy assessment of remote sensing data is the method used for determining the ground truth, independent of the remote sensing data itself. The sampling and accuracy procedures developed for nuclear power plant siting study are described. The purpose of the sampling procedure was to provide data for developing supervised classifications for two study sites and for assessing the accuracy of that and the other procedures used. The purpose of the accuracy assessment was to allow the comparison of the cost and accuracy of various classification procedures as applied to various data types.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Marshall Univ. Proc. of the Natl. Conf. on Energy Resource Management, Vol. 1; p 69-82
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The conditions under which a hybrid of clustering and canonical analysis for image classification produce optimum results were analyzed. The approach involves generation of classes by clustering for input to canonical analysis. The importance of the number of clusters input and the effect of other parameters of the clustering algorithm (ISOCLS) were examined. The approach derives its final result by clustering the canonically transformed data. Therefore the importance of number of clusters requested in this final stage was also examined. The effect of these variables were studied in terms of the average separability (as measured by transformed divergence) of the final clusters, the transformation matrices resulting from different numbers of input classes, and the accuracy of the final classifications. The research was performed with LANDSAT MSS data over the Hazleton/Berwick Pennsylvania area. Final classifications were compared pixel by pixel with an existing geographic information system to provide an indication of their accuracy.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Marshall Univ. Proc. of the Natl. Conf. on Energy Resource Management, Vol. 1; p 32-44
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  • 10
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The application of remote sensors for obtaining geophysical information of the Arctic regions is discussed. Two significant requirements are to acquire sequential, synoptic imagery of the Arctic Ocean during all weather and seasons and to measure the strains in the sea ice canopy and the heterogeneous character of the air and water stresses acting on the canopy. The acquisition of geophysical data by side looking radar and microwave sensors in military aircraft is described.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: 3d Ann. Earth Resources Program Rev., Vol. 3; 15 p
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