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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, New Hampshire : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/34
    In: CRREL Report, 82-34
    Description / Table of Contents: The ice discharge through an opening in an ice control structure was documented to be a function of the floe size, ice type, ice floe conditions and vessel direction. The model data for the average ice discharge per vessel transit scaled to prototype values compared favorably with data taken at the St. Marys River ice control structure (ICS). The model results of the force measurements were also consistent with data taken at the St. Marys ICS. The dynamic loading conditions were independent of vessel direction. The dynamic loading to the structure using 3 types of ice (plastic, natural and urea-doped) showed a considerable difference in their means and standard deviations. The urea-doped ice was evaluated for dynamic loading conditions, and reasonable peak values of 3 to 5 times the mean load at each measuring position were recorded, independent of vessel direction. It appears that synthetic random ice floes may be used in model studies where ice discharge through an opening in a structure needs to be documented. This study shows the synthetic random ice floe discharge to fall reasonably within the values obtained for natural ice discharge for both rafted and non-rafted ice fields above the ICS. However, the question of whether synthetic ice can be used for analyzing force distributions and dynamic force loading criteria cannot be fully answered at this time because the load distributions of the synthetic and natural floes appear to differ.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 68 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-34
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Scope of work Ice discharge from Lake Huron into St. Clair River Water velocity profiles at Port Huron Ice conditions Physical model Basis for selection Description Instrumentation Model ice control structure Open water calibration Open water tests Experimental procedures and techniques Ice cover calibration Ice control structure orientation Analysis of ice discharge due to ship transits Natural ice Synthetic ice Forces on the ice control structure Static measurements Dynamic force measurements Potential additional shear stresses Anticipated ice conditions with ICS Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A. Application of model results Appendix B. Suggested additional studies Appendix C. Derivation of ice discharge
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    In: CRREL Report, 76-31
    Description / Table of Contents: Sections in the Connecticut River where ice jam potential is high were identified through the use of low-altitude black and white photographs taken during low-flow, ice-free conditions. The hydraulics and mechanics of ice jam initiation were investigated in the river reach where these sections were identified. Certain areas were found in the river that had a high susceptibility to ice clogging, but this high potential decreased with increasing discharge because of the improved surface conveyance of the ice through the reach. The stability of ice floes was established along the channel, but the floes generally became unstable as the flow increased. This was calculated by using a Froude number criterion. Grounding locations for ice became evident when the critical Froude number was zero for a given thickness and water depth. No single factor was determined to be responsible for initiating the ice jams in the Connecticut River at Windsor. Apparently there existed a multitude of interacting conditions: surface constrictions, possible high backwater conditions from the Brattleboro Dam, a solid ice cover in the backwater of the Brattleboro Dam that prevented ice transport from the Windsor area, deep pools followed by shallow depth sections upstream of bridge piers, a greater ice thickness accumulation of fragmented floes than would result if a uniform cover could be established in the same reach, and the diurnal fluctuation of river stage casued by the release of water at Wilder Dam.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vi, 39 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 76-31
    Language: English
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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