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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2005
    Description: Earthquake scarps associated with recent historical events have been found on the floor of the Sea of Marmara, along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The MAuto-Regressive Moving Average-processRASCARPS cruise using an unmanned submersible (ROV) provides direct observations to study the fine-scale morphology and geology of those scarps, their distribution, and geometry. The observations are consistent with the diversity of fault mechanisms and the fault segmentation within the north Marmara extensional step-over, between the strike-slip Ganos and Izmit faults. Smaller strike-slip segments and pull-apart basins alternate within the main step-over, commonly combining strike-slip and extension. Rapid sedimentation rates of 1-3 mm/yr appear to compete with normal faulting components of up to 6 mm/yr at the pull-apart margins. In spite of the fast sedimentation rates the submarine scarps are preserved and accumulate relief. Sets of youthful earthquake scarps extend offshore from the Ganos and Izmit faults on land into the Sea of Marmara. Our observations suggest that they correspond to the submarine ruptures of the 1999 Izmit (Mw 7.4) and the 1912 Ganos (Ms 7.4) earthquakes. While the 1999 rupture ends at the immediate eastern entrance of the extensional Cinarcik Basin, the 1912 rupture appears to have crossed the Ganos restraining bend into the Sea of Marmara floor for 60 km with a right-lateral slip of 5 m, ending in the Central Basin step-over. From the Gulf of Saros to Marmara the total 1912 rupture length is probably about 140 km, not 50 km as previously thought. The direct observations of submarine scarps in Marmara are critical to defining barriers that have arrested past earthquakes as well as defining a possible segmentation of the contemporary state of loading. Incorporating the submarine scarp evidence modifies substantially our understanding of the current state of loading along the NAF next to Istanbul. Coulomb stress modeling shows a zone of maximum loading with at least 4-5 m of slip deficit encompassing the strike-slip segment 70 km long between the Cinarcik and Central Basins. That segment alone would be capable of generating a large-magnitude earthquake (Mw 7.2). Other segments in Marmara appear less loaded. FROTH
    Keywords: Earthquake hazard ; Turkey ; Fault zone ; NAF ; G3 ; G-cubed ; AGU ; Ucarkus ; Lepinay ; Cagatay ; Cakir ; Structural geology ; 7230 ; Seismology: ; Seismicity ; and ; tectonics ; Oezalaybey ; Ozalaybey ; Lefevre ; 7223 ; Earthquake ; interaction, ; forecasting, ; and ; prediction ; morphology ; submersible ; 8110 ; Tectonophysics: ; Continental ; tectonics: ; general ; 1766 ; 1894 ; 1912 ; 1999 ; Earthquake
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2000
    Keywords: Strike-slip ; Fault zone ; Geol. aspects ; Seismics (controlled source seismology) ; Kaslilar-Oezcan ; Ozcan ; Guney ; Gueney ; Kuscu ; Imren
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  • 3
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    In:  Eos, Trans., Am. Geophys. Un., Stockholm, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, vol. 83, no. 21, pp. 229, 235 & 236, pp. L15318, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 2002
    Keywords: Deep seismic sounding (espec. cont. crust) ; Sea seismics ; Geol. aspects ; Turkey ; Seismicity ; Earthquake hazard ; Fault zone ; NAF ; Cagatay ; Goeruer ; Gorur ; Imren
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  • 4
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    In:  Tectonics, Jena, Scientific American, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 296-316, pp. TC2014, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 2004
    Keywords: Structural geology ; Strain ; Fault zone ; NAF ; Tuerk ; turkey ; Dip-slip ; LePichon ; Pichon ; Imren ; FLORENZO ; FROTH
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  • 5
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    In:  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Amsterdam, Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, vol. 186, no. 2, pp. 143-158, pp. L12S09, (ISSN 0016-8548, ISBN 3-510-50045-8)
    Publication Date: 2001
    Keywords: Turkey ; Fault zone ; Sea seismics ; Geol. aspects ; Goeruer ; Gorur ; Imren ; LePichon ; Pichon
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  • 6
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    In:  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Amsterdam, Conseil de l'Europe, vol. 192, no. 4, pp. 595-616, pp. B02405, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 2001
    Keywords: TUERK ; Fault zone ; NAF ; Sengoer ; Sengor ; Gorur ; Cagatay ; Saatcilar ; EPSL ; Imren ; LePichon ; Pichon ; SRICHWALSKI ; FROTH
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-20
    Description: [1]  The distribution of plate motion between multiple fault strands and how this distribution may evolve remain poorly understood, despite the key implications for seismic hazards. The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in northwest Turkey is a prime example of a multi-stranded continental transform. Here we present the first constraints on late Quaternary slip rates on its northern branch across the Cinarcik Basin in the eastern Marmara Sea. We use both deep penetration and high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection data with a stratigraphic age model to show that a depocenter has persisted near the fault bend responsible for that transform basin. Successively older depocenters have been transported westward by fault motion relative to Eurasia, indicating a uniform right-lateral slip rate of 18.5 mm/yr over the last 500,000 years, compared to overall GPS rates (23-24 mm/yr). Thus, the northern branch has slipped at a nearly constant rate and has accounted for most of the relative plate motion between Eurasia and Anatolia since ~0.5 Ma.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-05-18
    Description: This paper presents results of a multi-channel seismic reflection survey at Lake Van and provides constraints on the sedimentary evolution of the lake. The geophysical data of the lake confirm the existence of three physiographic provinces: a shelf, a slope, and a deep, relatively flat basin. The most prominent features identified on the shelf and slope are clinoforms, submerged channels, as well as closely spaced lake floor depressions, reflecting a highly variable lake-level history. The morphological depressions are interpreted as resulting from subaquatic erosion by channelized, sediment-laden currents into horizontally bedded fan sediments. Submerged channels on the eastern shelf are interpreted as meandering-slope channels, probably as a consequence of a lake-level fall that exposed the shelf area. Clinoforms on the Eastern fan may represent relict deltas formed during stationary or slightly rising lake-level intervals. Merging subsurface imaging interpretation with morphological studies of exposed sediments reveals lake-level fluctuations of several hundreds of meters during the past ca. ~550 ka. The lake has three prominent basins (Tatvan, Deveboynu, and the Northern basin) separated by basement ridges (e.g., the Northern ridge). The seismic units in the Tatvan and Northern basins are dominated by alternations of well-stratified and chaotic reflections, while the Deveboynu basin subsurface consists mainly of chaotic units. The chaotic seismic facies are interpreted as mass-flow deposits, probably triggered by earthquakes and/or rapid lake-level fluctuations. The moderate-to-high-amplitude, well-stratified facies seen in the deeper parts of the basins are interpreted as lacustrine deposits intercalated with tephra layers. The occurrence of a clinoform in the deepest part of the lake suggests a major flooding stage of Lake Van more than ~400 ka ago. Seismic profiles from the deepest part of the lake basin show remarkably uniform and continuous stratigraphic units without any major erosional feature following the flooding event, indicating that the lake was never completely dry afterward and therefore significantly older than previously suggested.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉We identify long transform faults that frame the eastern Mediterranean Sea and that were active during Jurassic and probably the Early Cretaceous, during the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. We show that the African margin of the eastern Mediterranean Sea is an 1800 km long transform fault that absorbed the Africa/Eurasia Jurassic left-lateral motion during the opening of the central Atlantic. We call this transform fault the Eastern Mediterranean South Transform fault (EMST). We identify two other transform faults that were active simultaneously and framed the eastern Mediterranean Sea during its formation. These are the Apulia Transform fault (AT) and the Eastern Mediterranean North Transform fault (EMNT). The AT, three hundred km north of the EMST, followed the southern boundary of the Apulia block. Still 300 km farther north, the EMNT formed the northern boundary of this eastern Mediterranean shear zone. This last fault has been destroyed over a large portion by the Hellenic subduction. We relate these transform faults to the kinematics of the Jurassic Africa/Eurasia motion. We conclude that the eastern Mediterranean Sea is a long pull-apart created by left-lateral shearing of the Adria block as it was structurally linked to Africa.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0008-4077
    Electronic ISSN: 1480-3313
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈span〉We discuss the structure of the present Hellenic subduction zone. We show that the present Hellenic subduction zone was formed at about 15 Ma when it started to consume the Mediterranean lithosphere and to form the large accretionary wedge that covers a large part of the eastern Mediterranean. We establish that there is independent evidence that the very large Hellenic Trough that it created was formed simultaneously. Shortly before, an 8–10 km thick backstop that extends 200 km southward, where it presently abuts the African margin, was put into place. We reconstruct the northern margin of the eastern Mediterranean Sea prior to the Hellenic subduction in a new and independent way. The faults recently identified by 〈a href="https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/cjes#refg57"〉Sachpazi et al. (2016〈span〉a〈/span〉〈/a〉. Geophysical Research Letters, 〈strong〉43〈/strong〉: 651–658) and 〈a href="https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/cjes#refg58"〉Sachpazi et al. (2016〈span〉b〈/span〉〈/a〉. Geophysical Research Letters, 〈strong〉43〈/strong〉: 9619–9626) within the Hellenic seismic slab are a key element of our reconstruction. This is because the slab, which is part of the Nubia plate, is rigid and the faults within it coincide with the lines of slip congruent with the relative motion of the Aegean block over it. These faults demonstrate that about 400 to 500 kilometers of eastern Mediterranean lithosphere have been subducted with essentially the same southwestward direction of motion during the last 15 Myr. Our reconstruction shows that before the onset of the Hellenic subduction, the northern margin of the eastern Mediterranean Sea coincided with a major Jurassic transform fault that limited the eastern Mediterranean to the north during its formation in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous as proposed in part 1. We discuss the implications of this reconstruction on the Neogene evolution of the Anatolia–Aegea block and its geodynamics.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0008-4077
    Electronic ISSN: 1480-3313
    Topics: Geosciences
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