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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-08-22
    Description: Splicing of precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) in yeast is executed by the spliceosome, which consists of five small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), NTC (nineteen complex), NTC-related proteins (NTR), and a number of associated enzymes and cofactors. Here, we report the three-dimensional structure of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe spliceosome at 3.6-angstrom resolution, revealed by means of single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy. This spliceosome contains U2 and U5 snRNPs, NTC, NTR, U6 small nuclear RNA, and an RNA intron lariat. The atomic model includes 10,574 amino acids from 37 proteins and four RNA molecules, with a combined molecular mass of approximately 1.3 megadaltons. Spp42 (Prp8 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the key protein component of the U5 snRNP, forms a central scaffold and anchors the catalytic center. Both the morphology and the placement of protein components appear to have evolved to facilitate the dynamic process of pre-mRNA splicing. Our near-atomic-resolution structure of a central spliceosome provides a molecular framework for mechanistic understanding of pre-mRNA splicing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yan, Chuangye -- Hang, Jing -- Wan, Ruixue -- Huang, Min -- Wong, Catherine C L -- Shi, Yigong -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Sep 11;349(6253):1182-91. doi: 10.1126/science.aac7629. Epub 2015 Aug 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26292707" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Catalytic Domain ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; RNA, Small Nuclear/chemistry ; Repressor Proteins/chemistry ; Ribonucleoprotein, U5 Small Nuclear/chemistry ; Schizosaccharomyces/*ultrastructure ; Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins/chemistry ; Spliceosomes/*chemistry/*ultrastructure
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: Splicing of precursor messenger RNA is accomplished by a dynamic megacomplex known as the spliceosome. Assembly of a functional spliceosome requires a preassembled U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP complex, which comprises the U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP), the U4 and U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) duplex, and a number of protein factors. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP at an overall resolution of 3.8 angstroms by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. The local resolution for the core regions of the tri-snRNP reaches 3.0 to 3.5 angstroms, allowing construction of a refined atomic model. Our structure contains U5 snRNA, the extensively base-paired U4/U6 snRNA, and 30 proteins including Prp8 and Snu114, which amount to 8495 amino acids and 263 nucleotides with a combined molecular mass of ~1 megadalton. The catalytic nucleotide U80 from U6 snRNA exists in an inactive conformation, stabilized by its base-pairing interactions with U4 snRNA and protected by Prp3. Pre-messenger RNA is bound in the tri-snRNP through base-pairing interactions with U6 snRNA and loop I of U5 snRNA. This structure, together with that of the spliceosome, reveals the molecular choreography of the snRNAs in the activation process of the spliceosomal ribozyme.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wan, Ruixue -- Yan, Chuangye -- Bai, Rui -- Wang, Lin -- Huang, Min -- Wong, Catherine C L -- Shi, Yigong -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):466-75. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6466. Epub 2016 Jan 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26743623" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Catalysis ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Protein Conformation ; RNA Precursors/chemistry ; *RNA Splicing ; RNA, Messenger/chemistry ; RNA, Small Nuclear/*chemistry/ultrastructure ; Ribonucleoprotein, U4-U6 Small Nuclear/*chemistry/ultrastructure ; Ribonucleoprotein, U5 Small Nuclear/*chemistry/ultrastructure ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/*chemistry/ultrastructure ; Spliceosomes/*chemistry/ultrastructure
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-04-13
    Description: Scaffold-assisted signaling cascades guide cellular decision-making. In budding yeast, one such signal transduction pathway called the mitotic exit network (MEN) governs the transition from mitosis to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The MEN is conserved and in metazoans is known as the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. We found that signaling through the MEN kinase cascade was mediated by an unusual two-step process. The MEN kinase Cdc15 first phosphorylated the scaffold Nud1. This created a phospho-docking site on Nud1, to which the effector kinase complex Dbf2-Mob1 bound through a phosphoserine-threonine binding domain, in order to be activated by Cdc15. This mechanism of pathway activation has implications for signal transmission through other kinase cascades and might represent a general principle in scaffold-assisted signaling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3884217/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3884217/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rock, Jeremy M -- Lim, Daniel -- Stach, Lasse -- Ogrodowicz, Roksana W -- Keck, Jamie M -- Jones, Michele H -- Wong, Catherine C L -- Yates, John R 3rd -- Winey, Mark -- Smerdon, Stephen J -- Yaffe, Michael B -- Amon, Angelika -- CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- F32 GM086038/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM056800/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM51312/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MC_U117584228/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103533/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41 RR011823/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES015339/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM051312/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056800/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R29 GM056800/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U117584228/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- U54 CA112967/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 17;340(6134):871-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1235822. Epub 2013 Apr 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579499" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anaphase ; Cell Cycle Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Deoxyribonucleases/chemistry/*metabolism ; Enzyme Activation ; GTP-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; *Mitosis ; Phosphoproteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Conformation ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/cytology/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; tRNA Methyltransferases/chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2006-06-24
    Description: Posttranslational arginylation is critical for mouse embryogenesis, cardiovascular development, and angiogenesis, but its molecular effects and the identity of proteins arginylated in vivo are unknown. We found that beta-actin was arginylated in vivo to regulate actin filament properties, beta-actin localization, and lamella formation in motile cells. Arginylation of beta-actin apparently represents a critical step in the actin N-terminal processing needed for actin functioning in vivo. Thus, posttranslational arginylation of a single protein target can regulate its intracellular function, inducing global changes on the cellular level, and may contribute to cardiovascular development and angiogenesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Karakozova, Marina -- Kozak, Marina -- Wong, Catherine C L -- Bailey, Aaron O -- Yates, John R 3rd -- Mogilner, Alexander -- Zebroski, Henry -- Kashina, Anna -- P41 RR11823-09/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Jul 14;313(5784):192-6. Epub 2006 Jun 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Animal Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794040" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actin Cytoskeleton/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Actins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Aminoacyltransferases/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Arginine/chemistry/*metabolism ; *Cell Movement ; Cell Shape ; Cell Size ; Fibroblasts ; Immunoprecipitation ; Isoelectric Point ; Mass Spectrometry ; Mice ; Protein Binding ; Protein Isoforms/chemistry/metabolism ; Pseudopodia/metabolism/ultrastructure
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-06-28
    Description: Centrosomes organize the bipolar mitotic spindle, and centrosomal defects cause chromosome instability. Protein phosphorylation modulates centrosome function, and we provide a comprehensive map of phosphorylation on intact yeast centrosomes (18 proteins). Mass spectrometry was used to identify 297 phosphorylation sites on centrosomes from different cell cycle stages. We observed different modes of phosphoregulation via specific protein kinases, phosphorylation site clustering, and conserved phosphorylated residues. Mutating all eight cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-directed sites within the core component, Spc42, resulted in lethality and reduced centrosomal assembly. Alternatively, mutation of one conserved Cdk site within gamma-tubulin (Tub4-S360D) caused mitotic delay and aberrant anaphase spindle elongation. Our work establishes the extent and complexity of this prominent posttranslational modification in centrosome biology and provides specific examples of phosphorylation control in centrosome function.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3825980/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3825980/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Keck, Jamie M -- Jones, Michele H -- Wong, Catherine C L -- Binkley, Jonathan -- Chen, Daici -- Jaspersen, Sue L -- Holinger, Eric P -- Xu, Tao -- Niepel, Mario -- Rout, Michael P -- Vogel, Jackie -- Sidow, Arend -- Yates, John R 3rd -- Winey, Mark -- F32 GM086038/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM51312/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MOP-64404/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- P41 RR011823/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM051312/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM051312-16/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM051312-16S1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062427/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003039/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008759/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 RR022220/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jun 24;332(6037):1557-61. doi: 10.1126/science.1205193.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21700874" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; CDC2 Protein Kinase/metabolism ; *Cell Cycle ; Centrosome/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Fungal Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Fungi/metabolism ; G1 Phase ; Mitosis ; Mutation ; Phosphoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Proteome/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/cytology/genetics/growth & development/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Spindle Apparatus/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Tubulin/chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-26
    Description: Journal of Proteome Research DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00681
    Print ISSN: 1535-3893
    Electronic ISSN: 1535-3907
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-12-21
    Description: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a complex etiology and is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Although more than 40 loci have shown robust association with SLE, the details of these loci, such as the independent contributors and the genes involved, are still unclear. In this study, we performed meta-analysis of two existing genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on Chinese Han populations from Hong Kong and Anhui, China, and followed the findings by further replication on three additional Chinese and Thailand cohorts with a total of 4254 cases and 6262 controls matched geographically and ethnically. We discovered multiple susceptibility variants for SLE in the 11q23.3 region, including variants in/near PHLDB1 (rs11603023, P_ combined = 1.25E–08, OR = 1.20), DDX6 (rs638893, P_ combined = 5.19E–07, OR = 1.22) and CXCR5 (rs10892301, P_ combined = 2.51E–08, OR = 0.85). Genetic contributions from the newly identified variants were all independent of SNP rs4639966, whose association was reported from the previous GWAS. In addition, the three newly identified variants all showed independent association with the disease through modeling by both stepwise and conditional logistic regression. The presence of multiple independent variants in this region emphasizes its role in SLE susceptibility, and also hints the possibility that distinct biological mechanisms might be involved in the disease involving this genomic region.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-02-12
    Description: Langmuir DOI: 10.1021/la104265b
    Print ISSN: 0743-7463
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5827
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-10-18
    Description: Author(s): G. Kopnov, O. Cohen, M. Ovadia, K. Hong Lee, C. C. Wong, and D. Shahar We present the results of a magnetoresistance study of the disorder-induced superconductor-insulator transition in an amorphous indium-oxide thin film patterned by a nanoscale periodic array of holes. We observed Little-Parks-like oscillations over our entire range of disorder spanning the transitio... [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 167002] Published Wed Oct 17, 2012
    Keywords: Condensed Matter: Electronic Properties, etc.
    Print ISSN: 0031-9007
    Electronic ISSN: 1079-7114
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-12-11
    Description: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease that affects mainly females. What role the X chromosome plays in the disease has always been an intriguing question. In this study, we examined the genetic variants on the X chromosome through meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on SLE on Chinese Han populations. Prominent association signals from the meta-analysis were replicated in 4 additional Asian cohorts, with a total of 5373 cases and 9166 matched controls. We identified a novel variant in PRPS2 on Xp22.3 as associated with SLE with genome-wide significance (rs7062536, OR = 0.84, P = 1.00E–08). Association of the L1CAM-MECP2 region with SLE was reported previously. In this study, we identified independent contributors in this region in NAA10 (rs2071128, OR = 0.81, P = 2.19E–13) and TMEM187 (rs17422, OR = 0.75, P = 1.47E–15), in addition to replicating the association from IRAK1-MECP2 region (rs1059702, OR = 0.71, P = 2.40E–18) in Asian cohorts. The X-linked susceptibility variants showed higher effect size in males than that in females, similar to results from a genome-wide survey of associated SNPs on the autosomes. These results suggest that susceptibility genes identified on the X chromosome, while contributing to disease predisposition, might not contribute significantly to the female predominance of this prototype autoimmune disease.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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