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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Betsholtz, Christer -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):160-1. doi: 10.1038/nature16866. Epub 2016 Jan 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology at Uppsala University, and the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics at the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735011" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Endothelium, Vascular/*growth & development/*metabolism ; Female ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Humans ; Male
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Blood vessels define local microenvironments in the skeletal system, play crucial roles in osteogenesis and provide niches for haematopoietic stem cells. The properties of niche-forming vessels and their changes in the ageing organism remain incompletely understood. Here we show that Notch signalling in endothelial cells leads to the expansion of haematopoietic stem cell niches in bone, which involves increases in CD31-positive capillaries and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRbeta)-positive perivascular cells, arteriole formation and elevated levels of cellular stem cell factor. Although endothelial hypoxia-inducible factor signalling promotes some of these changes, it fails to enhance vascular niche function because of a lack of arterialization and expansion of PDGFRbeta-positive cells. In ageing mice, niche-forming vessels in the skeletal system are strongly reduced but can be restored by activation of endothelial Notch signalling. These findings indicate that vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells are part of complex, age-dependent microenvironments involving multiple cell populations and vessel subtypes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kusumbe, Anjali P -- Ramasamy, Saravana K -- Itkin, Tomer -- Mae, Maarja Andaloussi -- Langen, Urs H -- Betsholtz, Christer -- Lapidot, Tsvee -- Adams, Ralf H -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):380-4. doi: 10.1038/nature17638. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Tissue Morphogenesis, and University of Munster, Faculty of Medicine, D-48149 Munster, Germany. ; Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. ; Vascular Biology Program, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. ; Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Vascular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Scheeles vag 2, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074508" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*physiology ; Animals ; Antigens, CD31/metabolism ; Arterioles/cytology/*physiology ; Bone and Bones/*blood supply/cytology/metabolism ; Capillaries/cytology/*physiology ; Cell Count ; Endothelial Cells/metabolism ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Osteogenesis ; Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/metabolism ; Receptors, Notch/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Stem Cell Factor/metabolism ; *Stem Cell Niche
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-07-03
    Description: Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, is a key process in several pathological conditions, including tumour growth and age-related macular degeneration. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) stimulate angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases in endothelial cells. VEGFR-3 (also known as FLT-4) is present in all endothelia during development, and in the adult it becomes restricted to the lymphatic endothelium. However, VEGFR-3 is upregulated in the microvasculature of tumours and wounds. Here we demonstrate that VEGFR-3 is highly expressed in angiogenic sprouts, and genetic targeting of VEGFR-3 or blocking of VEGFR-3 signalling with monoclonal antibodies results in decreased sprouting, vascular density, vessel branching and endothelial cell proliferation in mouse angiogenesis models. Stimulation of VEGFR-3 augmented VEGF-induced angiogenesis and sustained angiogenesis even in the presence of VEGFR-2 (also known as KDR or FLK-1) inhibitors, whereas antibodies against VEGFR-3 and VEGFR-2 in combination resulted in additive inhibition of angiogenesis and tumour growth. Furthermore, genetic or pharmacological disruption of the Notch signalling pathway led to widespread endothelial VEGFR-3 expression and excessive sprouting, which was inhibited by blocking VEGFR-3 signals. Our results implicate VEGFR-3 as a regulator of vascular network formation. Targeting VEGFR-3 may provide additional efficacy for anti-angiogenic therapies, especially towards vessels that are resistant to VEGF or VEGFR-2 inhibitors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tammela, Tuomas -- Zarkada, Georgia -- Wallgard, Elisabet -- Murtomaki, Aino -- Suchting, Steven -- Wirzenius, Maria -- Waltari, Marika -- Hellstrom, Mats -- Schomber, Tibor -- Peltonen, Reetta -- Freitas, Catarina -- Duarte, Antonio -- Isoniemi, Helena -- Laakkonen, Pirjo -- Christofori, Gerhard -- Yla-Herttuala, Seppo -- Shibuya, Masabumi -- Pytowski, Bronislaw -- Eichmann, Anne -- Betsholtz, Christer -- Alitalo, Kari -- 5 R01 HL075183-02/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Jul 31;454(7204):656-60. doi: 10.1038/nature07083. Epub 2008 Jun 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular/Cancer Biology Laboratory and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Biomedicum Helsinki and the Haartman Institute University of Helsinki, PO Box 63 (Haartmaninkatu 8), 00014 Helsinki, Finland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18594512" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Dipeptides/pharmacology ; Down-Regulation ; Endothelial Cells/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects ; Humans ; Ligands ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Transgenic ; Neoplasms/*blood supply/drug therapy ; Neovascularization, Pathologic/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptors, Notch/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3/*antagonists & ; inhibitors/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2010-10-15
    Description: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of specific physical barriers, enzymes and transporters, which together maintain the necessary extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS). The main physical barrier is found in the CNS endothelial cell, and depends on continuous complexes of tight junctions combined with reduced vesicular transport. Other possible constituents of the BBB include extracellular matrix, astrocytes and pericytes, but the relative contribution of these different components to the BBB remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate a direct role of pericytes at the BBB in vivo. Using a set of adult viable pericyte-deficient mouse mutants we show that pericyte deficiency increases the permeability of the BBB to water and a range of low-molecular-mass and high-molecular-mass tracers. The increased permeability occurs by endothelial transcytosis, a process that is rapidly arrested by the drug imatinib. Furthermore, we show that pericytes function at the BBB in at least two ways: by regulating BBB-specific gene expression patterns in endothelial cells, and by inducing polarization of astrocyte end-feet surrounding CNS blood vessels. Our results indicate a novel and critical role for pericytes in the integration of endothelial and astrocyte functions at the neurovascular unit, and in the regulation of the BBB.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Armulik, Annika -- Genove, Guillem -- Mae, Maarja -- Nisancioglu, Maya H -- Wallgard, Elisabet -- Niaudet, Colin -- He, Liqun -- Norlin, Jenny -- Lindblom, Per -- Strittmatter, Karin -- Johansson, Bengt R -- Betsholtz, Christer -- England -- Nature. 2010 Nov 25;468(7323):557-61. doi: 10.1038/nature09522. Epub 2010 Oct 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Vascular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Scheeles vag 2, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. annika.armulik@ki.se〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20944627" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/metabolism ; Benzamides ; Blood-Brain Barrier/*cytology/*metabolism ; Central Nervous System/blood supply ; Endothelial Cells/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Imatinib Mesylate ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Pericytes/*metabolism ; Piperazines/pharmacology ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Pyrimidines/pharmacology ; Transcytosis/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-05-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Betsholtz, Christer -- England -- Nature. 2014 May 22;509(7501):432-3. doi: 10.1038/nature13339. Epub 2014 May 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden, and the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24828036" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood-Brain Barrier/*embryology/*physiology ; Brain/*metabolism ; Docosahexaenoic Acids/*metabolism ; Female ; Male ; Membrane Transport Proteins/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dejana, Elisabetta -- Betsholtz, Christer -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):341-2. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1139.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, Milan, Italy. Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, Milan University, Milan, Italy. elisabetta.dejana@igp.uu.se christer.betsholtz@igp.uu.se. ; Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. elisabetta.dejana@igp.uu.se christer.betsholtz@igp.uu.se.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798001" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Movement ; Cerebral Cortex/*embryology ; Humans ; Neural Stem Cells/*physiology ; *Neurogenesis ; Oligodendroglia/*physiology ; *Organogenesis ; Spinal Cord/*embryology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1997-07-11
    Description: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B-deficient mouse embryos were found to lack microvascular pericytes, which normally form part of the capillary wall, and they developed numerous capillary microaneurysms that ruptured at late gestation. Endothelial cells of the sprouting capillaries in the mutant mice appeared to be unable to attract PDGF-Rbeta-positive pericyte progenitor cells. Pericytes may contribute to the mechanical stability of the capillary wall. Comparisons made between PDGF null mouse phenotypes suggest a general role for PDGFs in the development of myofibroblasts.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lindahl, P -- Johansson, B R -- Leveen, P -- Betsholtz, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jul 11;277(5323):242-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Goteborg, Medicinaregatan 9A, S-413 90 Goteborg, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9211853" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aneurysm/*etiology ; Animals ; Brain/blood supply ; Capillaries/*cytology/embryology/metabolism ; Cell Movement ; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/metabolism ; Hemorrhage/etiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mutation ; Neovascularization, Physiologic ; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/deficiency/genetics/*physiology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*physiology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis ; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism ; Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta ; Receptor, TIE-2 ; Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Up-Regulation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-05-25
    Description: Human apolipoprotein E has three isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE4. APOE4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is associated with Down's syndrome dementia and poor neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury and haemorrhage. Neurovascular dysfunction is present in normal APOE4 carriers and individuals with APOE4-associated disorders. In mice, lack of Apoe leads to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, whereas APOE4 increases BBB susceptibility to injury. How APOE genotype affects brain microcirculation remains elusive. Using different APOE transgenic mice, including mice with ablation and/or inhibition of cyclophilin A (CypA), here we show that expression of APOE4 and lack of murine Apoe, but not APOE2 and APOE3, leads to BBB breakdown by activating a proinflammatory CypA-nuclear factor-kappaB-matrix-metalloproteinase-9 pathway in pericytes. This, in turn, leads to neuronal uptake of multiple blood-derived neurotoxic proteins, and microvascular and cerebral blood flow reductions. We show that the vascular defects in Apoe-deficient and APOE4-expressing mice precede neuronal dysfunction and can initiate neurodegenerative changes. Astrocyte-secreted APOE3, but not APOE4, suppressed the CypA-nuclear factor-kappaB-matrix-metalloproteinase-9 pathway in pericytes through a lipoprotein receptor. Our data suggest that CypA is a key target for treating APOE4-mediated neurovascular injury and the resulting neuronal dysfunction and degeneration.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4047116/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4047116/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bell, Robert D -- Winkler, Ethan A -- Singh, Itender -- Sagare, Abhay P -- Deane, Rashid -- Wu, Zhenhua -- Holtzman, David M -- Betsholtz, Christer -- Armulik, Annika -- Sallstrom, Jan -- Berk, Bradford C -- Zlokovic, Berislav V -- R01 AG039452/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS034467/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01AG039452/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R37 AG013956/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R37 AG023084/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS034467/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37AG13956/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R37AG23084/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R37NS34467/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 May 16;485(7399):512-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11087.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Neurodegenerative and Vascular Brain Disorders, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22622580" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apolipoprotein E2/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Apolipoprotein E3/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Apolipoprotein E4/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Apolipoproteins E/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects/*physiology/physiopathology ; Cerebrovascular Circulation/*physiology ; Cyclophilin A/antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/*metabolism ; Hippocampus/metabolism/pathology ; Humans ; Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Microcirculation ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism/pathology ; Neurons/metabolism/pathology ; Pericytes/metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: The mammalian cerebral cortex supports cognitive functions such as sensorimotor integration, memory, and social behaviors. Normal brain function relies on a diverse set of differentiated cell types, including neurons, glia, and vasculature. Here, we have used large-scale single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to classify cells in the mouse somatosensory cortex and hippocampal CA1 region. We found 47 molecularly distinct subclasses, comprising all known major cell types in the cortex. We identified numerous marker genes, which allowed alignment with known cell types, morphology, and location. We found a layer I interneuron expressing Pax6 and a distinct postmitotic oligodendrocyte subclass marked by Itpr2. Across the diversity of cortical cell types, transcription factors formed a complex, layered regulatory code, suggesting a mechanism for the maintenance of adult cell type identity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zeisel, Amit -- Munoz-Manchado, Ana B -- Codeluppi, Simone -- Lonnerberg, Peter -- La Manno, Gioele -- Jureus, Anna -- Marques, Sueli -- Munguba, Hermany -- He, Liqun -- Betsholtz, Christer -- Rolny, Charlotte -- Castelo-Branco, Goncalo -- Hjerling-Leffler, Jens -- Linnarsson, Sten -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 6;347(6226):1138-42. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa1934. Epub 2015 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Dag Hammarskjolds vag 20, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. ; Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Dag Hammarskjolds vag 20, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. Division of Vascular Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. sten.linnarsson@ki.se jens.hjerling-leffler@ki.se.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700174" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CA1 Region, Hippocampal/*cytology/metabolism ; Eye Proteins/genetics ; Gene Expression ; Genetic Markers ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics ; Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors/genetics ; Interneurons/*classification/cytology/metabolism ; Mice ; Oligodendroglia/*classification/cytology/metabolism ; Paired Box Transcription Factors/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Repressor Proteins/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, RNA/*methods ; Single-Cell Analysis/*methods ; Somatosensory Cortex/*cytology/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/classification/genetics ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1988-09-09
    Description: Human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) consists of two distinct but related polypeptide chains designated PDGF-A and PDGF-B. The gene encoding PDGF-B has given rise to the v-sis oncogene. In the present study the transforming activities of PDGF-A and PDGF-B genes are compared. The PDGF-A chain gene is markedly less efficient in inducing transformation than the PDGF-B gene under the influence of the same promoter. There are significant differences in the secretory and growth stimulating properties of the two chains. These properties appear to account for the much more potent transforming ability of the PDGF-B gene. These findings provide insights into biologic properties of a growth factor responsible for potent autocrine stimulation of abnormal cell proliferation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Beckmann, M P -- Betsholtz, C -- Heldin, C H -- Westermark, B -- Di Marco, E -- Di Fiore, P P -- Robbins, K C -- Aaronson, S A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1988 Sep 9;241(4871):1346-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2842868" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Compartmentation ; Cell Line ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Immunologic Techniques ; Mice ; Molecular Weight ; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/*physiology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*physiology ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*physiology ; Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor ; Solubility
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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