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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: In studying the processes controlling particle distrbution of fine sediments over the continental shelf, the height, structure and dynamics of the bottom boundary layer must be better understood. The Sediment Transport Events on Shelves and Slopes (STRESS) program provides a comprehensive set of data over the bottom half of the water column at the 90m and the 130m isobaths along the northern California continental shelf during the winters of 1988-89 and 1990-91. This report presents the STRESS salinity, temperature, velocity, wave characteristics and attenuation data. The report describes the processing, provides plots and tables of the data and corresponding statistics for evaluation of the data, and documents the data fies. The combined set of moored and tripod mounted instrument measurements provides integrated, hourly-averaged profiles of the lower half of the water column at the four sites which can be used for analysis and modeling purposes.
    Description: Funding provided by the Office of Naval Research under contracts N00014-89-J-1067, N00014-89-J-1058 and N00014-89-J-1074.
    Keywords: Bottom boundary layer ; Sediment transport ; Continental shelf ; Integrated profies
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-25
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (2008): C08031, doi:10.1029/2008JC004726.
    Description: The shoaling of the nonlinear internal tide in Massachusetts Bay is studied with a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model. The results are compared with current and temperature observations obtained during the August 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment and observations from a shorter experiment which took place in September 2001. The model shows how the approaching nonlinear undular bore interacts strongly with a shoaling bottom, offshore of where KdV theory predicts polarity switching should occur. It is shown that the shoaling process is dominated by nonlinearity, and the model results are interpreted with the aid of a two-layer nonlinear but hydrostatic model. After interacting with the shoaling bottom, the undular bore emerges on the shallow shelf inshore of the 30-m isobath as a nonlinear internal tide with a range of possible shapes, all of which are found in the available observational record.
    Description: A. Scotti began this project as a Postdoctoral Scholar at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, with support from the Johnson Foundation and the USGS. Further support was provided to Scotti by the Office of Naval Research under grants N00014-01-1-0172, N00014-03-1-0553, and N00014-05-1-0361, and by NSF under grant OCE 07-29636. R. Beardsley was supported by ONR under grants N00014-98-1- 0059, N00014-00-1-0210, and the Smith Chair in Coastal Physical Oceanography. J. Pineda was supported by ONR under grants N00014-01-1-0172, and by a WHOIOcean Life Institute Fellowship.
    Keywords: Nonlinear internal waves ; Internal tide ; Shoaling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 112 (2007): C10001, doi:10.1029/2007JC004313.
    Description: During the summer, nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) are commonly observed propagating in Massachusetts Bay. The topography of the area is unique in the sense that the generation area (over Stellwagen Bank) is only 25 km away from the shoaling area, and thus it represents an excellent natural laboratory to study the life cycle of NLIWs. To assist in the interpretation of the data collected during the 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment (MBIWE98), a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model covering the generation/shoaling region was developed, to investigate the response of the system to the range of background and driving conditions observed. Simplified models were also used to elucidate the role of nonlinearity and dispersion in shaping the NLIW field. This paper concentrates on the generation process and the subsequent evolution in the basin. The model was found to reproduce well the range of propagation characteristics observed (arrival time, propagation speed, amplitude), and provided a coherent framework to interpret the observations. Comparison with a fully nonlinear hydrostatic model shows that during the generation and initial evolution of the waves as they move away from Stellwagen Bank, dispersive effects play a negligible role. Thus the problem can be well understood considering the geometry of the characteristics along which the Riemann invariants of the hydrostatic problem propagate. Dispersion plays a role only during the evolution of the undular bore in the middle of Stellwagen Basin. The consequences for modeling NLIWs within hydrostatic models are briefly discussed at the end.
    Description: A. Scotti began this project as a Postdoctoral Scholar at theWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, with support from the Johnson Foundation and the USGS. Further support was provided to Scotti by the Office of Naval Research under grants N00014-01-1-0172, N00014- 03-1-0553, and N00014-05-1-0361, and to Beardsley under grants N00014- 98-1-0059, N00014-00-1-0210, and the Smith Chair in Coastal Physical Oceanography.
    Keywords: Nonlinear internal waves ; Generation and propagation ; Modeling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 22 (2005): 583–591, doi:10.1175/JTECH1731.1.
    Description: The algorithm used to transform velocity signals from beam coordinates to earth coordinates in an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) relies on the assumption that the currents are uniform over the horizontal distance separating the beams. This condition may be violated by (nonlinear) internal waves, which can have wavelengths as small as 100–200 m. In this case, the standard algorithm combines velocities measured at different phases of a wave and produces horizontal velocities that increasingly differ from true velocities with distance from the ADCP. Observations made in Massachusetts Bay show that currents measured with a bottom-mounted upward-looking ADCP during periods when short-wavelength internal waves are present differ significantly from currents measured by point current meters, except very close to the instrument. These periods are flagged with high error velocities by the standard ADCP algorithm. In this paper measurements from the four spatially diverging beams and the backscatter intensity signal are used to calculate the propagation direction and celerity of the internal waves. Once this information is known, a modified beam-to-earth transformation that combines appropriately lagged beam measurements can be used to obtain current estimates in earth coordinates that compare well with pointwise measurements.
    Description: A. Scotti was partially supported by ONR Grants N00014-03-1-0553 and N00014-01-1- 0172, B. Butman and P. Alexander by the U.S. Geological Survey, and R. Beardsley by the WHOI Smith Chair and ONR Grant N00014-98-1-0210. S. Anderson received partial support from ONR (Grant N00014-97- 1-0158). The Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment was jointly supported by ONR and USGS.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-03-04
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This is the author's version of the work and is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Progress in Oceanography 143 (2016): 26-45, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2016.02.005.
    Description: CODAR-derived surface currents in Block Island Sound over the period of June 2000 through September 2008 were compared to currents computed using the Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS). The measurement uncertainty of CODAR-derived currents, estimated using statistics of a screened nine-year time series of hourly-averaged flow field, ranged from 3-7 cm/s in speed and 4°-14° in direction. The CODAR-derived and model-computed kinetic energy spectrum densities were in good agreement at subtidal frequencies, but the NECOFS-derived currents were larger by about 28% at semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal frequencies. The short-term (hourly to daily) current variability was dominated by the semidiurnal tides (predominantly the M2 tide), which on average accounted for ~87% of the total kinetic energy. The diurnal tidal and subtidal variability accounted for ~4% and ~9% of the total kinetic energy, respectively. The monthly-averaged difference between the CODAR-derived and model-computed velocities over the study area was 6 cm/s or less in speed and 28° or less in direction over the study period. An EOF analysis for the low-frequency vertically-averaged model current field showed that the water transport in the Block Island Sound region was dominated by modes 1 and 2, which accounted for 89% and 7% of the total variance, respectively. Mode 1 represented a relatively stationary spatial and temporal flow pattern with a magnitude that varied with season. Mode 2 was characterized mainly by a secondary cross-shelf flow and a relatively strong along-shelf flow. Process-oriented model experiments indicated that the relatively stationary flow pattern found in mode 1 was a result of tidal rectification and its magnitude changed with seasonal stratification. Correlation analysis between the flow and wind stress suggested that the cross-shelf water transport and its temporal variability in mode 2 were highly correlated to the surface wind forcing. The mode 2 derived onshore and offshore water transport, and was consistent with wind-driven Ekman theory. The along-shelf water transport over the outer shelf, where a large portion of the water flowed from upstream Nantucket Shoals, was not highly correlated to the surface wind stress.
    Description: This work was supported by the NSF grants OCE-1332207 and OCE-1332666, MIT Sea Grant College Program through grant 2012-R/RC-127, and the NOAA NERACOOS program funds for NECOFS. Operational funding for the CODAR systems used in this study was provided by the Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System. The development of the Global-FVCOM system has been supported by NSF grants OCE-1203393. C. Chen’s contribution was also supported by the International Center for Marine Studies at Shanghai Ocean University through the “Shanghai Universities First-class Disciplines Project”.
    Description: 2017-03-04
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-04-02
    Description: The Nantucket Shoals Flux Experiment (NSFE79) was conducted across the continental shelf and upper slope south of Nantucket from March, 1979 to April , 1980 to measure the flow of shelf water from the Georges Bank/Gulf of Maine region into the Middle Atlantic Bight. Conceived as a cooperative field experiment involving the Northeast Fisheries Center (NMFS), U.S. Geological Survey (Woods Hole), University of New Hampshire, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the experiment contained two principal components, a moored array of current meter and bottom instrumentation deployed at six locations across the shelf and upper slope spanning a depth range from 46 m to 810 m, and a series of 27 hydrographic surveys made along or near the moored array line during the experiment. A basic description of the NSFE79 hydrographic data has been given in Part 1 by Wright (1983). A description of the moored array components and the basic moored array data sets is presented here in Part 2.
    Description: The NEFC participation was supported by the NMFS Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment, and Prediction (MARt-1AP) Program. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) supported the USGS field and analysis component under t~emoranda of Understanding M550-MU6-79, M551-MU8- 24, M551-MU9-4, and M551-MU0-18. The WHO! and UNH field programs were supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants OCE 78-19513 and OCE 78-26229.
    Keywords: Oceanography ; Hydrography ; Ocean currents ; Moored arrays
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-12-21
    Description: This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Continental Shelf Research 28 (2008): 257-282, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2007.08.008.
    Description: Massachusetts Bay is a semi-enclosed embayment in the western Gulf of Maine about 50 km wide and 100 km long. Bottom sediment resuspension is controlled predominately by storm-induced surface waves and transport by the tidal- and wind-driven circulation. Because the Bay is open to the northeast, winds from the northeast (‘Northeasters’) generate the largest surface waves and are thus the most effective in resuspending sediments. The three-dimensional oceanographic circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to explore the resuspension, transport, and deposition of sediment caused by Northeasters. The model transports multiple sediment classes and tracks the evolution of a multilevel sediment bed. The surficial sediment characteristics of the bed are coupled to one of several bottom-boundary layer modules that calculate enhanced bottom roughness due to wave–current interaction. The wave field is calculated from the model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Two idealized simulations were carried out to explore the effects of Northeasters on the transport and fate of sediments. In one simulation, an initially spatially uniform bed of mixed sediments exposed to a series of Northeasters evolved to a pattern similar to the existing surficial sediment distribution. A second set of simulations explored sediment-transport pathways caused by storms with winds from the northeast quadrant by simulating release of sediment at selected locations. Storms with winds from the north cause transport southward along the western shore of Massachusetts Bay, while storms with winds from the east and southeast drive northerly nearshore flow. The simulations show that Northeasters can effectively transport sediments from Boston Harbor and the area offshore of the harbor to the southeast into Cape Cod Bay and offshore into Stellwagen Basin. This transport pattern is consistent with Boston Harbor as the source of silver found in the surficial sediments of Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Basin.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge support from the USGS Mendenhall Post-Doctoral Research Program for John C. Warner.
    Keywords: Sediment transport ; Three-dimensional numerical model ; Storms ; Northeasters ; Multiple grain sizes ; USA ; Gulf of Maine ; Massachusetts Bay
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 24 (2007): 1924-1935, doi:10.1175/JTECH2078.1.
    Description: A field evaluation of two new dissolved-oxygen sensing technologies, the Aanderaa Instruments AS optode model 3830 and the Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc., model SBE43, was carried out at about 32-m water depth in western Massachusetts Bay. The optode is an optical sensor that measures fluorescence quenching by oxygen molecules, while the SBE43 is a Clark polarographic membrane sensor. Optodes were continuously deployed on bottom tripod frames by exchanging sensors every 4 months over a 19-month period. A Sea-Bird SBE43 was added during one 4-month deployment. These moored observations compared well with oxygen measurements from profiles collected during monthly shipboard surveys conducted by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. The mean correlation coefficient between the moored measurements and shipboard survey data was 〉0.9, the mean difference was 0.06 mL L−1, and the standard deviation of the difference was 0.15 mL L−1. The correlation coefficient between the optode and the SBE43 was 〉0.9 and the mean difference was 0.07 mL L−1. Optode measurements degraded when fouling was severe enough to block oxygen molecules from entering the sensing foil over a significant portion of the sensing window. Drift observed in two optodes beginning at about 225 and 390 days of deployment is attributed to degradation of the sensing foil. Flushing is necessary to equilibrate the Sea-Bird sensor. Power consumption by the SBE43 and required pump was 19.2 mWh per sample, and the optode consumed 0.9 mWh per sample, both within expected values based on manufacturers’ specifications.
    Description: This work was funded by the MWRA and USGS.
    Keywords: Instrumentation ; Sensors ; Ocean dynamics ; Ship observations ; In situ observations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 103 (2014): 6-26, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.10.002.
    Description: Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization.Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct 1 seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with 〉 300 cysts cm-3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts → blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms → cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance (e.g., cumulative shellfish toxicity, duration of detectable toxicity in shellfish, and bloom termination date). These data suggest that it may be possible to use cyst abundance to empirically forecast the geographic extent of the forthcoming bloom and, conversely, to use other metrics from bloom and toxicity events to forecast the size of the subsequent cyst population as the inoculum for the next year’s bloom. This is an important step towards understanding the excystment/encystment cycle in A. fundyense bloom dynamics while also augmenting our predictive capability for this HAB-forming species in the GOM.
    Description: Research support provided by the ECOHAB Grant program through NOAA Grants NA06NOS4780245 and NA09NOS4780193, and through the Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health, National 1 Science Foundation (NSF) Grants OCE-0430724, OCE-0911031, and OCE-1314642; and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Grants 1-P50-ES012742-01 and 1-P01-ES021923-01, and funding through the states of ME, NH, and MA. We are also grateful for event response funding provided for many of the cruises. Funding for J.L. Martin was provided by Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
    Keywords: Alexandrium fundyense ; Cysts ; Resuspension ; Gulf of Maine ; Harmful algal bloom ; HAB ; Red tide ; Paralytic shellfish poisoning
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-09-22
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 41 (2014): 3163–3171, doi:10.1002/2014GL059957.
    Description: On 28–30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.
    Keywords: Water level ; Back-barrier bays ; Hurricane Sandy ; Middle Atlantic Bight
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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