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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Rotating at over twice the angular speed of Earth, Saturn imposes a rapid spin on its magnetosphere. As a result, cold, dense plasma is believed to be flung outward from the inner magnetosphere by centrifugal force and replaced by hotter, more tenuous plasma from the outer magnetosphere. The ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Earth's radiation belts—also known as the Van Allen belts—contain high-energy electrons trapped on magnetic field lines. The centre of the outer belt is usually 20,000–25,000 km from Earth. The region between the belts is normally devoid of particles, and is ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The fast plasma analyzer EU-1 of the SCA-1 complex plasma spectrometer is installed onboard the Interball Tail Probe (Interball-1). It provides fast threedimensional measurements of the ion distribution function on the low-spin-rate Prognoz satellite (about 2min). The EU-1 ion spectrometer with virtual aperture consists of two detectors with 16 E/Q narrow-angle analyzers and electrostatic scanners. This configuration allows one to measure the ion distribution function in three dimensions (over 15 energy steps in 50 eV/Q–5.0 keV/Q energy range in 64 directions) in 7.5 s, which makes it independent of the slow rotation speed of the satellite. A description of the instrument and its capabilities is given. We present here the preliminary results of measurements of ions for two cases of the dawn low-and mid-latitude magnetopause crossings. The properties of observed ion structures and their tentative explanation are presented. The 12 September 1995 pass at low latitude at about 90° solar-zenith angle on the dawn side of the magnetosphere is considered in more detail. Dispersive ions are seen at the edge of the magnetopause and at the edges of subsequently observed plasma structures. Changes in ion velocity distribution in plasma structures observed after the first magnetopause crossing suggest that what resembles multiple magnetopause crossings may be plasma blobs penetrating the magnetosphere. Observed variations of plasma parameters near magnetopause structures suggest nonstationary reconnection as the most probable mechanism for observed structures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A toroidal electrostatic analyzer of a design suitable for space plasma instrumentation has been constructed and tested. Experimental results are compared with second-order ion optical theory and are in good agreement. Verifying the ion optics of the toroid was simplified by use of a position-sensing microchannel-plate detector mounted on a positioning system with three translational degrees of freedom located at the toroid exit. The toroidal analyzer described here is the first optical element in a fully toroidal mass spectrograph intended for analysis of kilovolt magnetospheric plasmas.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A plasma-contactor neutralizer system is described, for the stabilizing the Orbiter's potential during flights of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science missions. The plasma contactor neutralizer will include a Xe plasma source that can provide steady-state ion-emission currents of up to 1.5 A. The Orbiter's potential will be maintained near that of the surrounding space plasma during electron-beam accelerator firings through a combination of ion emission from the Xe plasma source and electron collection from the ambient space plasma. Configuration diagrams and block diagrams are presented along with the performance characteristics of the system.
    Keywords: PLASMA PHYSICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-1603
    Format: text
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  • 6
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The NASA Dynamics Explorer (DE) mission has the objective to investigate the physical processes which control interactions among the earth's upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. The DE 1 and the DE 2 spacecraft were launched together on a Delta 3913 launch vehicle from the Western Test Range on Aug. 3, 1981. It is pointed out that the science objectives of the Dynamics Explorer mission required a comprehensive set of measurements of plasma and electric and magnetic fields simultaneously at high and low altitudes along with neutral-gas measurements in the thermosphere. Attention is given to the various instruments employed on the spacecraft, the primary measurement objectives, and a summary of science results.
    Keywords: ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: AIAA PAPER 85-0061
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  • 7
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The Spacelab 1 payload carried several instrument systems which together investigated a number of space plasma phenomena. These experiments used the Space Shuttle Orbiter as a platform for making controlled particle-beam, plasma and neutral gas inputs to the ionosphere and magnetosphere and for observing the outputs produced. Spacelab 1 space-plasma investigations included the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams (PICPAB), Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging (AEPI) and the Low Energy Electron Spectrometer and Magnetometer. Among the major phenomena investigated both singly and jointly by these experiments are vehicle charging and neutralization, beam-plasma and wave-particle interactions, anomalous ionization phenomena produced by neutral-gas and plasma injections and several phenomena induced by modulated particle beam injections.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 85-0150
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  • 8
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Dynamics Explorer-1 High Altitude Plasma Instrument data have been used to investigate the injection of magnetosheath plasma into the polar cusp, the injection of auroral ion beams into the magnetosphere, and the acceleration of electrons transverse to the magnetic field direction, and the results are discussed. In the case of polar cusp plasmas, it is found that injection occurs at the high-latitude magnetopause, at geocentric distances near eight earth radii. In the case of auroral ion beams it is determined that ion bands are not produced by equatorial injection from the plasma sheet, but by the upward acceleration of ions from auroral acceleration regions. Finally, conical electron distributions are found to be consistent with transverse acceleration at altitudes of a thousand or more km, within or below the magnetic-field-aligned potential drops of the auroral acceleration regions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 85-0065
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Kilometer wavelength radiation, measured from distant positions over the North Pole and over the Earth's equator, was compared to the area of discrete aurora imaged by several low-altitude spacecraft. Through correlative studies of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) with about two thousand auroral images, a stereoscopic view of the average auroral acceleration region was obtained. A major result is that the total AKR power increases as the area of the discrete auroral oval increases. The implications are that the regions of parallel potentials or the auroral plasma cavities, in which AKR is generated, must possess the following attributes: (1) they are shallow in altitude and their radial position depends on wavelength, (2) they thread flux tubes of small cross section, (3) the generation mechanism in them reaches a saturation limit rapidly, and (4) their distribution over the discrete auroral oval is nearly uniform. The above statistical results are true for large samples collected over a long period of time (about six months). In the short term, AKR frequently exhibits temporal variations with scales as short as three minutes (the resolution of the averaged data used). These fluctuations are explainable by rapid quenchings as well as fast starts of the electron cyclotron maser mechanism. There were times when AKR was present at substantial power levels while optical emissions were below instrument thresholds. A recent theoretical result may account for this set of observations by predicting that suprathermal electrons, of energies as low as several hundred eV, can generate second harmonic AKR. The indirect observations of second harmonic AKR require that these electrons have mirror points high above the atmosphere so as to minimize auroral light emissions. The results provide evidence supporting the electron cyclotron maser mechanism.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:184993 , NASA-CR-184993
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: SEPAC (Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators) flew on Spacelab 1 (SL 1) in November and December 1983. SEPAC is a joint U.S.-Japan investigation of the interaction of electron, plasma, and neutral beams with the ionosphere, atmosphere and magnetosphere. It is scheduled to fly again on Atlas 1 in August 1990. On SL 1, SEPAC used an electron accelerator, a plasma accelerator, and neutral gas source as active elements and an array of diagnostics to investigate the interactions. For Atlas 1, the plasma accelerator will be replaced by a plasma contactor and charge collection devices to improve vehicle charging meutralization. This paper describes the SEPAC instrumentation in detail for the SL 1 and Atlas 1 flights and includes a bibliography of SEPAC papers.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:89728 , NASA-TM-89728
    Format: application/pdf
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