ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-12-21
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 100 (2006): 213-233, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2005.10.013.
    Description: Thorium-234 is increasingly used as a tracer of ocean particle flux, primarily as a means to estimate particulate organic carbon export from the surface ocean. This requires determination of both the 234Th activity distribution (in order to calculate 234Th fluxes) and an estimate of the C/234Th ratio on sinking particles, to empirically derive C fluxes. In reviewing C/234Th variability, results obtained using a single sampling method show the most predictable behavior. For example, in most studies that employ in situ pumps to collect size fractionated particles, C/234Th either increases or is relatively invariant with increasing particle size (size classes 〉1 to 100’s μm). Observations also suggest that C/234Th decreases with depth and can vary significantly between regions (highest in blooms of large diatoms and highly productive coastal settings). Comparisons of C fluxes derived from 234Th show good agreement with independent estimates of C flux, including mass balances of C and nutrients over appropriate space and time scales (within factors of 2-3). We recommend sampling for C/234Th from a standard depth of 100 m, or at least one depth below the mixed layer using either large volume size fractionated filtration to capture the rarer large particles, or a sediment trap or other device to collect sinking particles. We also recommend collection of multiple 234Th profiles and C/234Th samples during the course of longer observation periods to better sample temporal variations in both 234Th flux and the characteristic of sinking particles. We are encouraged by new technologies which are optimized to more reliably sample truly settling particles, and expect the utility of this tracer to increase, not just for upper ocean C fluxes but for other elements and processes deeper in the water column.
    Description: Individuals and science efforts discussed herein were supported by many national science programs, including the U.S. National Science Foundation and U.S. Department of Energy. S.F. and J.C.M. acknowledge the support provided to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Marine Environment Laboratory by the Government of the Principality of Monaco. T.T. acknowledges support from the Australian Antarctic Science Program. K.B. was supported in part by a WHOI Ocean Life Institute Fellowship.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: 640962 bytes
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2007. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 55 (2008): 108-127, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.10.006.
    Description: The sinking of particles that make up the biological pump is not vertical, but nearly horizontal. This means that the locations where the particles are formed may be distant from their collection in a sediment trap. This has led to the development of the concept of the statistical funnel to describe the spatial-temporal sampling characteristics of a sediment trap. Statistical funnels can be used to quantify the source region in the upper ocean where collected particles were created (source funnels) or the location of the collected particles during that deployment (collection funnels). Here, we characterize statistical funnels for neutrally-buoyant, surface-tethered and deep-ocean moored trap deployments conducted just north of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. Three-dimensional realizations of the synoptic velocity field, created using satellite altimeter and shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data, are used to advect sinking particles back to their source for sinking velocities of 50 to 200 m per day. Estimated source and collection funnel characteristics for the 5-day collections made by neutrally-buoyant and surfacetethered traps are similar with typical scales of several km to several 10’s of km. Deep moored traps have daily source funnel locations that can be many 100’s of km distant from the trap and have long-term containment radii that range from 140 to 340 km depending upon sinking rate. We assess the importance of particle source regions using satellite estimates of chlorophyll concentration as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of particle export. Our analysis points to the need to diagnose water-parcel trajectories and particle sinking rates in the interpretation of sinking particle fluxes from moored or freely-drifting sediment traps, especially for regions where there are significant horizontal gradients in the export flux.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation’s Chemical and Biological Oceanography Programs (Grants OCE-0327318 and OCE-03-01139) and the Department of Energy’s Carbon Sequestration Program (Grant DE-FG02-03ER63697) for supporting our work on VERTIGO.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (2005): C09S16, doi:10.1029/2004JC002601.
    Description: Comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10–30 μm), medium (30–60 μm), and large (〉60 μm) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of “dissolved” Fe (filtrate 〈 0.2 μm) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the “dissolved” pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ∼ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of carbon into deeper waters is difficult to assess and is until now firmly proven and quite modest in only two experiments.
    Description: This research was supported by the European Union through programs CARUSO (1998– 2001), IRONAGES (1999 –2003), and COMET (2000–2003); the Netherlands- Bremen Oceanography program NEBROC-1; and the Netherlands Organization for Research NWO through the Netherlands Antarctic Program project FePath. Both the U.S. National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy provided significant support for the SOFeX program. M.R.L. acknowledges the U.S. National Science Foundation for support of IronEx and SOFeX projects and related studies (OCE-9912230, -9911765, and -0322074).
    Keywords: Iron ; Fertilization ; Phytoplankton
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2011. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 126 (2011): 108-113, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2011.04.004.
    Description: Photosynthesis by marine phytoplankton requires bioavailable forms of several trace elements that are found in extremely low concentrations in the open ocean. We have compared the concentration, lability and size distribution (〈 1 nm and 〈 10 nm) of a suite of trace elements that are thought to be limiting to primary productivity as well as a toxic element (Pb) in two High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions using a new dynamic speciation technique, Diffusive Gradients in Thin-film (DGT). The labile species trapped within the DGT probes have a size that is smaller or similar than the pore size of algal cell walls and thus present a proxy for bioavailable species. Total Dissolvable trace element concentrations (TD concentration) varied between 0.05 nM (Co) and 4.0 nM (Ni) at K2 (Northwest Pacific Ocean) and between 0.026 nM (Co) and 4.7 nM (Ni) in the Southern Ocean. The smallest size fractionated labile concentrations (〈 1 nm) observed at Southern Ocean sampling stations ranged between 0.002 nM (Co) and 2.1 nM (Ni). Moreover, large differences in bioavailable fractions (ratio of labile to TD concentration) were observed between the trace elements. In the Northwest Pacific Ocean Fe, Cu and Mn had lower labile fractions (between 10 and 44%) than Co, Cd, Ni and Pb (between 80 and 100%). In the Southern Ocean a similar trend was observed, and in addition: (1) Co, Cd, Ni and Pb have lower labile fractions in the Southern Ocean than in the Northwest Pacific and (2) the ratios of 〈1nm to dissolvable element concentrations at some Southern Ocean stations were very low and varied between 4 and16 %.
    Description: This research was supported by Federal Science Policy Office, Brussels, through contracts EV/03/7A, SD/CA/03A, the Research Foundation Flanders through grant G.0021.04 and Vrije Universiteit Brussel via grant GOA 22, as well as for K2, the VERTIGO program funding primarily by the US National Science Foundation programs in Chemical and Biological Oceanography
    Keywords: Trace elements ; Speciation ; Bioavailability ; Pacific Ocean ; Southern Ocean
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-09-22
    Description: Dataset: Niskin bottle samples
    Description: This Establishing Radionuclide Levels in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Originating from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Facility (Fukushima Radionuclide Levels) Niskin bottle samples dataset includes the following data: calibrated CTD measurements of salinity and oxygen and Niskin bottle water samples. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the supplemental document 'Field_names.pdf'. A full dataset description is included in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'.
    Description: Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Marine Microbiology Initiative (MooreMarMicro), NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) OCE-1136693
    Keywords: Fukushima Radionuclide Levels ; Niskin bottle data ; CTD Sea-Bird SBE 911plus data
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/csv
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 40 (2013): 1557–1561, doi:10.1002/grl.50219.
    Description: In the past two decades, a number of studies have been carried out in the Southern Ocean to look at export production using drifting sediment traps and thorium-234 based measurements, which allows us to reexamine the validity of using the existing relationships between production, export efficiency, and temperature to derive satellite-based carbon export estimates in this region. Comparisons of in situ export rates with modeled rates indicate a two to fourfold overestimation of export production by existing models. Comprehensive analysis of in situ data indicates two major reasons for this difference: (i) in situ data indicate a trend of decreasing export efficiency with increasing production which is contrary to existing export models and (ii) the export efficiencies appear to be less sensitive to temperature in this region compared to the global estimates used in the existing models. The most important implication of these observations is that the simplest models of export, which predict increase in carbon flux with increasing surface productivity, may require additional parameters, different weighing of existing parameters, or separate algorithms for different oceanic regimes.
    Description: This work was supported by NASA award number NNX08AB48G.
    Description: 2013-10-23
    Keywords: Biological pump ; Southern Ocean ; Carbon export
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: text/plain
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/msword
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2013. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 10 (2013): 6045-6052, doi:10.5194/bg-10-6045-2013.
    Description: Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2–1.5 Bq m–3) were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6–1.8 Bq m–3) were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m–3 (Station Aloha, 18 values). In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1–4 Bq m–3, and 137Cs levels were about 2–3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.
    Description: This material is based upon work supported by NSF under grant No. RAPID OCE-1137412, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF3007 to Ken Buesseler and the School of Ocean Earth Science and Technology, UH.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 10 (2012): 329-346, doi:10.4319/lom.2012.10.329.
    Description: We describe a new method for estimating sinking particulate carbon fluxes at high spatial and temporal resolutions from measurements of the particle concentration size distribution taken with an in situ camera system, in this case an autonomous video plankton recorder (VPR). Paired measurements of polyacrylamide gel traps and the VPR result in depth- and size-resolved parameterizations of the average sinking velocity, which enable the estimation of the flux size distribution from the concentration size distribution. Comparisons between the gel traps and the bulk carbon flux allows for the parameterization of the particle carbon content as a function of size. Together, these parameterizations permit the estimation of carbon fluxes from high-resolution VPR surveys. This method enables greater spatial, vertical, and temporal resolution of flux measurements beyond what is possible with conventional sediment traps. We tested this method in the Sargasso Sea and found that it was capable of accurately reproducing the fluxes measured in sediment traps while offering substantial improvement in the accuracy of the estimated fluxes compared to previous global and regional parameterizations. Our results point to the importance of local calibrations of the average sinking velocity and particle carbon content when estimating carbon fluxes from measurement of the concentration size distribution. This method holds important oceanographic potential for elucidating regional or basin scale carbon flows and providing new mechanistic insights into the function of the biological pump.
    Description: This project was made possible through funding from the National Science Foundation Carbon and Water Program (06028416), the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Academic Programs Office, ETH Zürich, and the Scurlock Bermuda Biological Station for Research Fund.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-12-21
    Description: Author Posting. © Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 10 (2012): 631-644, doi:10.4319/lom.2012.10.631.
    Description: Intercomparision of 234Th measurements in both water and particulate samples was carried out between 15 laboratories worldwide, as a part of GEOTRACES inter-calibration program. Particulate samples from four different stations namely BATS (both shallow and deep) and shelf station (shallow) in Atlantic and SAFE (both shallow and deep) and Santa Barbara station (shallow) in Pacific were used in the effort. Particulate intercalibration results indicate good agreement between all the participating labs with data from all labs falling within the 95% confidence interval around the mean for most instances. Filter type experiments indicate no significant differences in 234Th activities between filter types and pore sizes (0.2-0.8 μm). The only exception are the quartz filters, which are associated with 10% to 20% higher 234Th activities attributed to sorption of dissolved 234Th. Flow rate experiments showed a trend of decreasing 234Th activities with increasing flow rates (2-9 L min-1) for 〉 51 μm size particles, indicating particle loss during the pumping process. No change in 234Th activities on small particles was observed with increasing flow-rates. 234Th intercalibration results from deep water samples at SAFe station indicate a variability of 〈 3% amongst labs while dissolved 234Th data from surface water at Santa Barbara Station show a less robust agreement, possibly due to the loss of 234Th from decay and large in-growth corrections as a result of long gap between sample collection and processing.
    Description: This research is funded by NSF Chemical Oceanography program. LM will like to thank Fisheries and Oceans Canada for support. PM is supported through ICREA Academia funded by Generalitat de Catalunya. The International Atomic Energy Agency is grateful to the Government of the Principality of Monaco for the support provided to its Environment Laboratories.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 28 (2014): 181-196, doi:10.1002/2013GB004743.
    Description: The export of organic carbon from the surface ocean by sinking particles is an important, yet highly uncertain, component of the global carbon cycle. Here we introduce a mechanistic assessment of the global ocean carbon export using satellite observations, including determinations of net primary production and the slope of the particle size spectrum, to drive a food-web model that estimates the production of sinking zooplankton feces and algal aggregates comprising the sinking particle flux at the base of the euphotic zone. The synthesis of observations and models reveals fundamentally different and ecologically consistent regional-scale patterns in export and export efficiency not found in previous global carbon export assessments. The model reproduces regional-scale particle export field observations and predicts a climatological mean global carbon export from the euphotic zone of ~6 Pg C yr−1. Global export estimates show small variation (typically 〈 10%) to factor of 2 changes in model parameter values. The model is also robust to the choices of the satellite data products used and enables interannual changes to be quantified. The present synthesis of observations and models provides a path for quantifying the ocean's biological pump.
    Description: D.A.S. and K.O.B. acknowledge support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NNX11AF63G). S.C.D. and S.F.S. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation through the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) (NSF EF-0424599).
    Description: 2014-09-10
    Keywords: Carbon cycle ; Biological pump ; Carbon export ; Remote sensing ; Food webs
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/msword
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...