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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) is a NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) platform designed to acquire and investigate the distribution and variability of total lightning (i.e., cloud-to-ground and intracloud) between q35' in latitude. Since lightning is one of the responses of the atmosphere to thermodynamic and dynamic forcing, the LIS data is being used to detect deep convection without land-ocean bias, estimate the precipitation mass in the mixed phased region of thunderclouds, and differentiate storms with strong updrafts from those with weak vertical motion.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity; 746-749; NASA/CP-1999-209261
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Since April 1995, lightning activity around the globe has been monitored with the Optical Transient Detector (OTD). The OTD observations acquired during the one year period from September 1995 through August 1996 have been used to statistically determine the number of flashes that occur over the Earth during each hour of the diurnal cycle, expressed both as a function of local time and universal time. The globally averaged local [il,htnina activity displays a peak in late afternoon (1500-1800 local time) and a minimum in the morning hours (0600- 1000 local time) consistent with convection associated with diurnal heating. No diurnal variation is found for oceanic storms. The diurnal lightning distribution (universal time) for the globe displays a variation of about 35% about its mean as compared to the Carnegie curve which has a variation of only 15% above and below the mean.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity; 742-745; NASA/CP-1999-209261
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The Optical Transient Detector (OTD) is a space-based instrument specifically designed to detect and locate lightning discharges (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) as it orbits the Earth. A statistical examination of OTD lightning data reveals that nearly 1.2 billion flashes occurred over the entire earth during the one year period from September 1995 through August 1996. This translates to an average of 37 lightning flashes occurring around the globe every second, which is well below the traditional estimate of 100 flashes per second. An average of 75% of the global lightning activity during the year occurs between 30' S and 30' N. An analysis of the annual lightning distribution reveals that an average of 82% of the lightning flashes occur over the continents and 18% over the oceans, which translates to an average land-ocean flash density ratio of nearly 11.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity; 726-729; NASA/CP-1999-209261
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN64475 , American Meteorological Society (AMS) Annual Meeting; Jan 06, 2019 - Jan 10, 2019; Phoenix, AZ; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) has been collecting observations of total lightning in the global tropics and subtropics (roughly 38 deg S - 38 deg N) since December 1997. A similar instrument, the Optical Transient Detector, operated from 1995-2000 on another low earth orbit satellite that also saw high latitudes. Lightning data from these instruments have been used to create gridded climatologies and time series of lightning flash rate. These include a 0.5 deg resolution global annual climatology, and lower resolution products describing the annual cycle and the diurnal cycle. These products are updated annually. Results from the update through 2013 will be shown at the conference. The gridded products are publicly available for download. Descriptions of how each product can be used will be discussed, including strengths, weaknesses, and caveats about the smoothing and sampling used in various products.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: M14-3899 , Conference on the Meteorological Applications of Lightning Data; Jan 04, 2015 - Jan 08, 2015; Phoenix, AZ; United States|American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting; Jan 04, 2015 - Jan 08, 2015; Phoenix, AZ; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on the next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) will not have onboard calibration capability to monitor its performance. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been providing observations of total lightning over the Earth's Tropics since 1997. The GLM design is based on LIS heritage, making it a good proxy dataset. This study examines the performance of LIS throughout its time in orbit. This was accomplished through application of the Deep Convective Cloud Technique (DCCT) (Doelling et al., 2004) to LIS background pixel radiance data. The DCCT identifies deep convective clouds by their cold Infrared (IR) brightness temperatures and using them as invariant targets in the solar reflective portion of the solar spectrum. The GLM and LIS operate in the near-IR at a wavelength of 777.4 nm. In the present study the IR data is obtained from the Visible Infrared Sensor (VIRS) which is collocated with LIS onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The DCCT is applied to LIS observations for July and August of each year from 1998-2010. The resulting distributions of LIS background DCC pixel radiance for each July August are very similar, indicating stable performance. The mean radiance of the DCCT analysis does not show a long term trend and the maximum deviation of the July August mean radiance for each year is within 0.7% of the overall mean. These results demonstrate that there has been no discernible change in LIS performance throughout its lifetime. A similar approach will used for monitoring the performance of GLM, with cold clouds identified using IR data from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) which will also be located on GOES-R. Since GLM is based on LIS design heritage, the LIS results indicate that GLM should also experience stable performance over its lifetime.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: M12-2010 , 93rd Annual AmericanMeteorological Society (AMS) Meeting; Jan 06, 2013 - Jan 10, 2013; Austin, TX; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) and NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to enable improved nowcasting of lightning cessation. The project centers on use of dual-polarimetric radar capabilities, and in particular, the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar acquired by the 45WS. Special emphasis is placed on the development of a physically based operational algorithm to predict lightning cessation. While previous studies have developed statistically based lightning cessation algorithms, we believe that dual-polarimetric radar variables offer the possibility to improve existing algorithms through the inclusion of physically meaningful trends reflecting interactions between in-cloud electric fields and microphysics. Specifically, decades of polarimetric radar research using propagation differential phase has demonstrated the presence of distinct phase and ice crystal alignment signatures in the presence of strong electric fields associated with lightning. One question yet to be addressed is: To what extent can these ice-crystal alignment signatures be used to nowcast the cessation of lightning activity in a given storm? Accordingly, data from the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) along with the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are used in this study to investigate the radar signatures present before and after lightning cessation. A summary of preliminary results will be presented.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: M10-0752 , Proceedings of The 2010 NOAA STAR AWG/GOES-RRR Review; Jun 07, 2010 - Jun 11, 2010; Madison, WI; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office, the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. One significant technology transfer that has provided immediate benefits to NWS forecast and warning operations is the use of data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array. This network consists of ten VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama and a base station located at the National Space Science and Technology Center. Preliminary investigations done at WFO Huntsville, along with other similar total lightning networks across the country, have shown distinct correlations between the time rate-of-change of total lightning and trends in intensity/severity of the parent convective cell. Since May 2003 when WFO HUN began receiving these data - in conjunction with other more traditional remotely sensed data (radar, satellite, and surface observations) -- have improved the situational awareness of the WFO staff. The use of total lightning information, either from current ground based systems or future space borne instrumentation, may substantially contribute to the NWS mission, by enhancing severe weather warning and decision-making processes. Operational use of the data has been maximized at WFO Huntsville through a process that includes forecaster training, product implementation, and post event analysis and assessments. Since receiving these data, over 50 surveys have been completed highlighting the use of total lightning information during significant events across the Tennessee Valley. In addition, around 150 specific cases of interest have been archived for collaborative post storm analysis. From these datasets, detailed trending information from radar and total lightning can be compared to corresponding damage reports. This presentation will emphasize the effective use of total lightning information in warning decision making along with best practices for implementation of new technologies into operations.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: M09-0223 , 89th AMS Annual Meeting/American Meteorological Society; Jan 11, 2009 - Jan 15, 2009; Phoenix, AZ; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array NALMA has been collecting total lightning data on storms in the Tennessee Valley region since 2001. Forecasters from nearby National Weather Service (NWS) offices have been ingesting this data for display with other AWIPS products. The current lightning product used by the offices is the lightning source density plot. The new product provides a probabalistic, short-term, graphical forecast of the probability of lightning activity occurring at 5 min intervals over the next 30 minutes . One of the uses of the current lightning source density product by the Huntsville National Weather Service Office is to identify areas of potential for cloud-to-ground flashes based on where LMA total lightning is occurring. This product quantifies that observation. The Lightning Warning Product is derived from total lightning observations from the Washington, D.C. (DCLMA) and North Alabama Lightning Mapping Arrays and cloud-to-ground lightning flashes detected by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Probability predictions are provided for both intracloud and cloud-to-ground flashes. The gridded product can be displayed on AWIPS workstations in a manner similar to that of the lightning source density product.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: M09-0277 , 89th AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 11, 2009 - Jan 15, 2009; Phoenix, AZ; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Data obtained from the OTD (April 1995 to March 2000) and LIS (December 1997 to December 2005) satellites (70 and 35 degree inclination low earth orbits, respectively) are used to statistically determine the number of flashes in the diurnal cycle both as a function of local and universal time. Also included are global flash density maps. The data are further subdivided by season, continental versus oceanic, night time versus day time, northern versus southern hemisphere, and other regions of interest. The data include corrections for detection efficiency and instrument view time. The data are compared with both the "Carnegie Curve" and the diurnal global thunderstorm contributions from thunderday statistics from different continents, and are found to agree closely in phase and amplitude with the global thunderday statistics. The analysis also indicates that the southern hemisphere spring (September to November) has larger amplitude than the southern hemisphere fall (March to May). This may be due to differences in the contribution from the Brazilian rain forest during these periods. In general, as highlighted by a difference analysis, more lightning is observed in local springtime than the fall for continental locations, while oceanic regions display an opposite effect. For some areas of the world, the peak of diurnal curve appears to be shifted to later in the evening.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: International Conferences on Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE); Aug 13, 2007 - Aug 17, 2007; Beijing; China|International Commission on Atmospheric Electricity; Aug 13, 2007 - Aug 17, 2007; Beijing; China
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