First, second order neurons
Hemipterans (Notonecta glauca, Corixa punctata, Gerris lacustris)
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary Neuronal elements, i.e. first and second order neurons, of the first optic ganglion of three waterbugs, N. glauca, C. punctata and G. lacustris, are analyzed on the basis of light and electron microscopy. Eight retinula cell axons, leaving each ommatidium, disperse to different cartridges as they enter the laminar outer plexiform layer. Such a pattern of divergence is one of the conditions for neuronal superposition; it is observed for all three species of waterbugs. The manner in which the receptors of a single bundle of ommatidia split of within the lamina, whereby information from receptors up to three or five horizontal rows away can converge upon the same cartridge, differs among the species. Six of the eight axons of retinula cells R1-6, the short visual fibers end at different levels within the bilayered lamina, whereas the central pair of retinula cells R7/8, the long visual fibers, run directly through the lamina to a corresponding unit of the medulla. Four types of monopolar cells L1–L4 are classified; their branching patterns seem to be correlated to the splitting and termination of retinula cell axons. The topographical relationship and synaptic organization between retinula cell terminals and monopolar cells in the two laminar layers are identified by examination of serial ultrathin sections of single Golgi-stained neurons. An attempt is made to correlate some anatomical findings, especially the neuronal superposition, to results from physiological investigations on the hemipteran retina.
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