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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axoplasm ; elastic modulus ; viscosity ; motility ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A magnetic sphere viscoelastometer has been developed to peform rheological experiments in living axoplasm of Loligo pealei. The technique includes the use of a calibrated magnetic sphere viscoelastometer on surgically implanted ferro-magnetic spheres in intact squid giant axons. The axoplasm was discerned to be “living” by the biological criterion of tubulovesicular organelle motility, which was observed before and after experimentation. From these in vivo experiments, new structural characteristics of the axoplasm have been identified. First, analysis of magnetic sphere trajectories has shown the axoplasm to be a complex viscoelastic fluid. Directional experimentation showed that this material is structurally anisotropic, with a greater elastic modulus in the direction parallel to the axon long axis. Second, both magnetic sphere and in vivo capillary experiments suggested that the axoplasm is tenaciously anchored to the axolemma. Third, it was found that axoplasm could be modelled as a linear viscoelastic material in the low shear rate range of 0.0001 to 0.004 s-1. The simplest mechanical model incorporating the discovered properties of the material in this range is Burger's model.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: intracellular particle motions ; cytoplasmic streaming ; onion (Allium) epidermal cells ; video microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associated organelle and particle movements in onion (Allium cepa) bulb scale epidermal cells were observed, recorded, and analyzed using computer-assisted video (AVEC-DIC, AVEC-POL and fluorescence) microscopy. The ER is composed of two interconnected sets of filamentous membrane tubules with diameters ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 μm. The first form a more stable, stationary network of intersecting polygonal membrane tubules lying closely appressed to the plasma membrane and continuous with a second very dynamic set of longer membrane tubules that often are located parallel to each other, shifting rapidly around the cytoplasm and forming dynamic knots or organization centers. The ER, mitochondria, and spherosomes fluoresced upon chlortetracycline treatment and are therefore presumed to sequester calcium. ER and mitochrondria also stain with the fluorescent dye, rhodamine 123. Mitochrondria and spherosomes are seen to move in the cytoplasm only along paths parallel to the axis of the ER tubules. Smaller particles (0.5 μm) tend to follow these same paths but may occasionally move independently. Particles and organelles move in close, but not in direct, association with the ER tubules. In optically favored cells, actin filaments were occasionally recorded located in parallel with the ER tubules and directly associated with moving particles. Streaming ceased promptly and reversibly upon treatment with cytochalasin B, which did not visibly disrupt the ER. Short-term treatment with colchicine did not inhibit streaming or disrupt the ER network, whereas long-term (hours) colchicine treatments caused the disappearance of the stationary, cortical polygonal networks and an aggregation of still slowly moving organelles and particles onto now visible actin filaments. This suggests that microtubule breakdown disrupts the three-dimensional distribution of the ER and rearranges actin filaments in the cell's cytoplasm. Actin filaments must be directly involved in generation of movement of the particles and organelles. A three-dimensional model, based on optical sectioning of the epidermal cells, is proposed to illustrate the distribution of the endoplasmic reticulum in onion epidermal cell cytoplasm.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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