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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Tropospheric ozone ; tropospheric photochemistry ; nonmethane hydrocarbons
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The oxidation of nonmethane hydrocarbons represents a source of tropospheric ozone that is primarily confined to the boundary layers of several highly industrialized regions. (Each region has an area greater than one million km2). Using a photochemical model, the global tropospheric ozone budget is reexamined by including the in-situ production from these localized regimes. The results from these calculations suggest that the net source due to this photochemistry, which takes place on the synoptic scale, is approximately as large as the amount calculated for global scale photochemical processes which consider only the oxidation of methane and carbon monoxide. Such a finding may have a considerable impact on our understanding of the tropospheric ozone budget. The model results for ozone show reasonable agreement with the climatological summer distribution of ozone and the oxides of nitrogen at the surface and with the vertical distribution of ozone and nonmethane hydrocarbons obtained during a 1980 field program.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-29
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123 (2018): 1460–1477, doi:10.1002/2017JD027836.
    Description: Space-borne observations of CO2 are vital to gaining understanding of the carbon cycle in regions of the world that are difficult to measure directly, such as the tropical terrestrial biosphere, the high northern and southern latitudes, and in developing nations such as China. Measurements from passive instruments such as GOSAT and OCO-2, however, are constrained by solar zenith angle limitations as well as sensitivity to the presence of clouds and aerosols. Active measurements such as those in development for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission show strong potential for making measurements in the high-latitude winter and in cloudy regions. In this work we examine the enhanced flux constraint provided by the improved coverage from an active measurement such as ASCENDS. The simulation studies presented here show that with sufficient precision, ASCENDS will detect permafrost thaw and fossil fuel emissions shifts at annual and seasonal time scales, even in the presence of transport errors, representativeness errors, and biogenic flux errors. While OCO-2 can detect some of these perturbations at the annual scale, the seasonal sampling provided by ASCENDS provides the stronger constraint.
    Description: NASA Grant Numbers: NNX15AJ27G, NNX15AH13G
    Description: 2018-07-29
    Keywords: ASCENDS ; OCO-2 ; Permafrost ; Carbon emissions ; Satellite remote sensing ; Fossil fuel
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The ozone and aerosol number density data obtained from aircraft flights over the Amazon Basin (AB) during April and May of 1987 are summarized with particular attention given to the general characteristics of ozone and aerosol for wet season (WS), compared to dry season (DS), meteorology. It is concluded that the AB provides favorable conditions for the production of hydroxyl radical and subsequent chemical and photochemical reactions which generate or consume key atmospheric trace species. It is determined that a negative ozone gradient exists within the mixed layer (ML). WSML ozone is about 7 ppbv lower than that of DS. The net sink characteristics of the WSML are seen throughout the troposphere of the AB in that the ozone at 3-4 km altitude is typically 15-25 ppbv as compared to DS values of 30-35 ppbv. In terms of aerosol source characteristics of the AB, ML aerosols are 5-10 times higher than observed in the troposphere with ML values of 100-200 aerosols/cu cm. An analysis of aerosol size distribution data is presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 16903-16
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results are presented of O3 and aerosol measurements made in the lower troposphere from April 13 through May 10, 1987, as part of the wet season field experiment. Aircraft flights on the NASA Electra were conducted in the vicinity of Manaus, Brazil and between Manaus and the mouth of the Amazon River. Airborne O3 measurements were made in situ and with a lidar system pointed below the aircraft in nadir mode of operation. Data collection and results concerning the distributions of O3 and aerosols observed during the wet season from within the mixed layer to the middle troposphere over the central Amazon basin and between Manaus and Belem are discussed, and these observations are compared to the measurements obtained in the 1985 dry season. Ozone mixing ratio values are found to be lower than those of the 1985 dry season by 6-8 ppbv, indicating a strong removal process near the surface during wet season. It is also found that within the mixed layer O3 levels appeared to be lower over the forest compared to over the ocean.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 16887-16
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: During the second Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B), meteorological observations, chemical measurements, and model simulations are utilized in order to interpret convective cloud draft structure and to analyze its role in transport and vertical distribution of trace gases. One-dimensional photochemical model results suggest that the observed poststorm changes in ozone concentration can be attributed to convective transports rather than photochemical production and the results of a two-dimensional time-dependent cloud model simulation are presented for the May 6, 1987 squall system. The mesoscale convective system exhibited evidence of significant midlevel detrainment in addition to transports to anvil heights. Chemical measurements of O3 and CO obtained in the convective environment are used to predict photochemical production within the troposphere and to corroborate the cloud model results.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 17015-17
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Recent ozone measurements taken in the Amazonian rain forest environment during the wet season (April-May 1987) are described, revealling new aspects of the regional atmospheric chemistry. The measurements were part of the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B) mission and utilized UV absorption as a measurement technique to obtain surface ozone data; 20 ozonesondes were launched in order to obtain vertical ozone profiles used to describe the upper troposphere and stratosphere. The major differences in comparison to a previous dry season experiment, which found ozone concentrations to be lower in the whole troposphere by nearly a factor of 2, are stressed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 16913-16
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 1452-146
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: The NASA Langley Research Center's airborne UV Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system measures vertical profiles of ozone and aerosols above and below the aircraft along its flight track. This system has been used in over 20 airborne field missions designed to study the troposphere and stratosphere since 1980. Four of these missions involved tropospheric measurement programs in the Pacific Ocean with two in the western North Pacific and two in the South Pacific. The UV DIAL system has been used in these missions to study such things as pollution outflow, long-range transport, and stratospheric intrusions; categorize the air masses encountered; and to guide the aircraft to altitudes where interesting features can be studied using the in situ instruments. This paper will highlight the findings with the UV DIAL system in the Pacific Ocean field programs and introduce the mission planned for the western North Pacific for February-April 2001. This will be an excellent opportunity for collaboration between the NASA airborne mission and those with ground-based War systems in Asia Pacific Rim countries to make a more complete determination of the transport of air from Asia to the western Pacific.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring; Volume 4153; 290-294
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Tellus, Series B - Chemical and Physical Meteorology (ISSN 0280-6509); 40B; 393-407
    Format: text
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