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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Potsdam : Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZS-190(27) ; ZSP-625-27
    In: PIK report
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 23 S.
    Series Statement: PIK report 27
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
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    AGU
    In:  Geophysical Research Letters, 38 (2). L02705.
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼21,000 years ago) the cold climate was strongly tied to low atmospheric CO〈inf〉2〈/inf〉 concentration (∼190 ppm). Although it is generally assumed that this low CO〈inf〉2〈/inf〉 was due to an expansion of the oceanic carbon reservoir, simulating the glacial level has remained a challenge especially with the additional δ13C constraint. Indeed the LGM carbon cycle was also characterized by a modern-like δ13C in the atmosphere and a higher surface to deep Atlantic δ13C gradient indicating probable changes in the thermohaline circulation. Here we show with a model of intermediate complexity, that adding three oceanic mechanisms: brine induced stratification, stratification-dependant diffusion and iron fertilization to the standard glacial simulation (which includes sea level drop, temperature change, carbonate compensation and terrestrial carbon release) decreases CO〈inf〉2〈/inf〉 down to the glacial value of ∼190 ppm and simultaneously matches glacial atmospheric and oceanic δ13C inferred from proxy data. LGM CO〈inf〉2〈/inf〉 and δ13C can at last be successfully reconciled.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A 2.5-dimensional climate system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2 and its performance for present climate conditions are presented. The model consists of modules describing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, land surface processes, terrestrial vegetation cover, and global carbon cycle. The modules interact through the fluxes of momentum, energy, water and carbon. The model has a coarse spatial resolution, nevertheless capturing the major features of the Earth's geography. The model describes temporal variability of the system on seasonal and longer time scales. Due to the fact that the model does not employ flux adjustments and has a fast turnaround time, it can be used to study climates significantly different from the present one and to perform long-term (multimillennia) simulations. The comparison of the model results with present climate data show that the model successfully describes the seasonal variability of a large set of characteristics of the climate system, including radiative balance, temperature, precipitation, ocean circulation and cryosphere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-01-23
    Description: High-precision ice core data on both atmospheric CO2 concentrations and their carbon isotopic composition (δ13Catm) provide improved constraints on the marine and terrestrial processes responsible for carbon cycle changes during the last two interglacials and the preceding glacial/interglacial transitions.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-02-08
    Description: Approximately 1700 Pg of soil carbon (C) are stored in the northern circumpolar permafrost zone, more than twice as much C than in the atmosphere. The overall amount, rate, and form of C released to the atmosphere in a warmer world will influence the strength of the permafrost C feedback to climate change. We used a survey to quantify variability in the perception of the vulnerability of permafrost C to climate change. Experts were asked to provide quantitative estimates of permafrost change in response to four scenarios of warming. For the highest warming scenario (RCP 8.5), experts hypothesized that C release from permafrost zone soils could be 19–45 Pg C by 2040, 162–288 Pg C by 2100, and 381–616 Pg C by 2300 in CO2 equivalent using 100-year CH4 global warming potential (GWP). These values become 50 % larger using 20-year CH4 GWP, with a third to a half of expected climate forcing coming from CH4 even though CH4 was only 2.3 % of the expected C release. Experts projected that two-thirds of this release could be avoided under the lowest warming scenario (RCP 2.6). These results highlight the potential risk from permafrost thaw and serve to frame a hypothesis about the magnitude of this feedback to climate change. However, the level of emissions proposed here are unlikely to overshadow the impact of fossil fuel burning, which will continue to be the main source of C emissions and climate forcing.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-12-13
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    In:  PAGES News, 21 . pp. 20-21.
    Publication Date: 2015-11-20
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
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    In:  [Talk] In: EGU General Assembly 2012, 22.-27.04.2012, Vienna, Austria .
    Publication Date: 2016-10-05
    Description: Within warm climates major shifts within the vegetation cover took place, e.g. the boreal tree line was further north and due to an amplified monsoon system some 6000 yrs. ago the Sahara was on average greener than today. From a paleo perspective it is crucial to constrain these vegetation dynamics to understand the carbon cycle. Therefore, to (i) model the reconstructed carbon cycle dynamics and to (ii) validate the model a new feature for modeling the carbon fractionation (d13C) is developed. These processes are build in the land component JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere and Atmosphere Coupling Hamburg) of the Max-Planck Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The model comprises a module for dynamical vegetation and disturbances by wind and fire and can be driven by climate parameters out of observations, reconstructions or directly coupled to ESMs of full or intermediate complexity. Basically, the effective fractionation processes for C3 and C4 plants are based on Lloyd and Farquhar (1994) with an extension to include leaf- and photorespiration after Wingate et al. (2007). We will present a model study focusing the Holocene and Eemian (Mis5e) and their variability of modeled d13C as an effect of shifts in vegetation cover. The boundary conditions are taken from transient climate simulations with the MPI-ESM simulation (Fischer and Jungclaus, 2010) based on a constant atmospheric CO2 concentration and an orbital forcing following the PMIP-2 exercises
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    In:  [Talk] In: AGU Fall Meeting 2011, 05.-09.12.2011, San Francisco, USA .
    Publication Date: 2016-10-05
    Description: Understanding carbon cycle and climate dynamics in the past is crucial to project climate and CO2 changes in the future. Numerous geological archives of carbon isotope changes during the last deglaciation and Holocene provide an additional constraint on carbon cycle dynamics. To quantify a role of terrestrial mechanisms in atmospheric d13CO2 changes in the past, a model of 13C discrimination during terrestrial biogeochemical processes is added to the land surface module JSBACH of the MPI Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). The parameteresation of fractionation processes for C3 and C4 plants is based on the theory by Lloyd and Farquhar (Oecologia, 1994). The 13C model component simulates land-atmosphere carbon isotope exchanges on sub-daily time scale. The updated JSBACH model comprises a module for dynamical vegetation and disturbances by wind and fire and can be driven by climate forcing out of observations, reconstructions or directly coupled to ESMs of full or intermediate complexity. We will present a JSBACH model study focusing on the Holocene (last 6000 yrs). The climate forcing is taken out of a transient MPI-ESM simulation throughout the Holocene by Fischer and Jungclaus (Climate of the Past, 2010) based on a constant atmospheric CO2 concentration and an orbital forcing following the PMIP-2 exercises. The variability of modeled d13C will be shown as well as an effect of shifts in vegetation cover (changes in C3/C4 grass cover, boreal tree line, 'green Sahara' etc.) on the carbon isotope budget. Simulated changes in carbon isotope budget will be compared with ice core reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 and d13CO2.
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    In:  [Poster] In: 3. International Conference on Earth System Modelling (ICESM), 17.-21.09.2012, Hamburg, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2016-10-05
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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