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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Aeroacoustic evaluations of high-lift devices have been carried out in the Quiet Flow Facility of the NASA Langley Research Center. The present paper describes detailed flow and acoustic measurements that have been made in order to better understand the noise generated from airflow over a wing leading edge slat configuration, and to possibly predict and reduce this noise source. The acoustic database is obtained by a moveable Small Aperture Directional Array of microphones designed to electronically steer to different portions of models under study. The slat is shown to be a uniform distributed noise source. The data was processed such that spectra and directivity were determined with respect to a one-foot span of slat. The spectra are normalized in various fashions to demonstrate slat noise character. In order to equate portions of the spectra to different slat noise components, trailing edge noise predictions using measured slat boundary layer parameters as inputs are compared to the measured slat noise spectra.
    Keywords: Acoustics
    Type: Aeroacoustics; Volume 1; No. 3; 241-274
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Spectral data are presented for the noise produced due to the turbulent three-dimensional vortex flow existing near the rounded tip of lifting airfoils. The results are obtained by the comparison of sets of two- and three-dimensional test data for different airfoil model sizes, angles of attack, and tunnel flow velocities. Microphone cross-correlation and cross-spectral methods were used to determine the radiated noise. Corrections were made for tunnel shear layer and source directivity effects. Interpretation of the results are aided by a three-dimensional flow analysis developed for this study which determines open tunnel and finite aspect ratio corrections heretofore neglected in tip vortex studies. Hot wire measurements were made in the tip vortex formation region for the specification of governing flow parameters. The spectral data is normalized in a format considered most useful for subsequent quantitative prediction of this noise mechanism for practical systems such as helicopter rotors. Comparison is made to the analysis of George and Chou. A recommended prediction method is given.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2308
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Trailing edge data for boundary layer-near wake thickness parameters are given for airfoils and flat plates. Reynolds number effects are examined as a function of model size, velocity and boundary layer tripping. These data expand that presented previously by the authors particularly for airfoil non-zero angles of attack. Comparisons are made here with boundary layer calculations using potential flow modeling and a well documented two-dimensional finite-difference method for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Open wind tunnel corrections to angle of attack and camber are developed and are incorporated in the potential flow modeling to assure correct comparisons for non-zero angles of attack. It was found that although the open tunnel flow turbulence affected boundary layer transition for the higher velocities the theory successfully 'brackets' the data. Comparisons demonstrate the degree of accuracy one might expect for the prediction of boundary layer thickness parameters when given only geometry and nominal flow conditions as input to boundary layer codes.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2266
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Kirchhoff integral formulation is evaluated for its effectiveness in quantitatively predicting the sound radiated from an oscillating airfoil whose chord length is comparable with the acoustic wavelength. A rigid airfoil section was oscillated at samll amplitude in a medium at rest to produce the sound field. Simultaneous amplitude and phase measurements were made of surface pressure and surface velocity distributions and the acoustic free field. Measured surface pressure and motion are used in applying the theory, and airfoil thickness and contour are taken into account. The result was that the theory overpredicted the sound pressure level by 2 to 5, depending on direction. Differences are also noted in the sound field phase behavior.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: NASA-TP-1048 , L-11479
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Airfoil trailing-edge noise up to a Reynolds number based on chord of 2.96 x 10 to the 6th power was studied. Comparisons are made with current theory, particularly with regard to the nature of the pressure field in the vicinity of the trailing-edge and its influence on the radiated noise.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80134
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The NASA-Langley 4 x 7 m wind tunnel develops low frequency flow pulsations at certain velocity ranges during open throat mode operation, affecting the aerodynamics of the flow and degrading the resulting model test data. Triangular vanes attached to the trailing edge of flat steel rails, mounted 10 cm from the inside of the jet exit walls, have been used to reduce this effect; attention is presently given to methods used to reduce the inherent noise generation of the vanes while retaining their pulsation reduction features.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: AIAA Journal (ISSN 0001-1452); 23; 1631
    Format: text
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  • 7
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: AIAA Journal (ISSN 0001-1452); 24; 246-252
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Vane-induced noise reduced by adhering thin layer of porous material such as foam to downwind surface of vanes, particularly near sharp trailing edges, to prevent occurrence of edge tones. Other modifications made to aerodynamically streamline vane structure were rounding leading edges and smoothly fairing trailing edges. Boundary layer trip applied to leading edge to prevent laminar tone shedding from trailing edge.
    Keywords: MECHANICS
    Type: LAR-13333 , NASA Tech Briefs (ISSN 0145-319X); 9; 4; P. 143
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Recent results are presented from several research efforts aimed at the understanding of rotorcraft blade-vortex interaction (BVI) in terms of the noise generation, directivity, and control. The results are based on work performed by NASA Langley Research Center researchers, both alone and in collaboration with other research organizations. Based on analysis of a simplified physical model, the critical parameters controlling BVI noise generation have been identified. The detailed mapping of the acoustic radiation field of a model rotor in a wind tunnel has revealed the extreme sensitivity of directivity to rotor advance ratio and disk attitude. The control and reduction of BVI noise through the use of higher harmonic pitch control is discussed.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: Journal of Aircraft (ISSN 0021-8669); 31; 5; p. 1009-1015
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A special array system has been designed to examine noise source distributions over a helicopter rotor model. The particular measurement environment is for a rotor operating in the open jet of an anechoic wind tunnel. An out-of-flow directional microphone element array is used with a directivity pattern whose major directional lobe projects on the rotor disk. If significant contributions from extraneous tunnel noise sources in the direction of the side lobes are excluded, the dominant output from the array would be that noise emitted from the projected area on the rotor disk. The design incorporates an array element signal blending features which serves to control the spatial resolution of the size of the directional lobes. (Without blending, the resolution and side lobe size are very strong functions of frequency, which severely limits the array's usefulness).
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: Journal of Sound and Vibration (ISSN 0022-460X); 112; 192-197
    Format: text
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