Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Abstract. Yarrowia lipolytica strain IMK 2, a yeast capable of producing and excreting citric acid, only accumulated citric acid when cell growth was restricted by specific nutrient limitations. Effective citrate accumulation was linked with the ability of cells to maintain a high rate of glucose utilisation when growth was limited. Cells limited by nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg) or phosphorus (P) accumulated between 50 and 220 mm citric acid after 168 h, with N and S limitation resulting in the highest specific rates of production. In contrast, potassium (K)-limited cells accumulated 6 mm citric acid in the same time period. Cells limited by K or lower levels of Mg or P had rates of glucose utilisation that were less than 50% of those measured in cells limited by N or S. Although limitation of strain IMK 2 by Mg or P led to citrate production, significant accumulation occurred only when the threshold concentration of the limiting nutrient was exceeded. There was no large accumulation of other tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle acids, acetate, pyruvate, lactate or ethanol, although K-limited cells produced quantities of intracellular glycogen. Mannitol was accumulated under N, S and P limitation (up to 40 mm), as were small quantities of 2-oxoglutarate, which preceded the accumulation of citrate and all of the other TCA cycle acids measured. A clear difference was evident between the rates of glucose utilisation under N limitation between two citrate-accumulating strains (IMK 2 and Candida guilliermondii IMK 1) and a citrate non-accumulating strain, Y. lipolytica YB 423. Although these strains had similar rates of glucose utilisation during exponential growth, both strains IMK 1 and IMK 2 had specific rates of glucose utilisation under N limitation more than double that of strain YB 423.
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