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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Arctic haze ; pollution in the Arctic ; long-range transport of pollutants ; cloud scavenging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Airborne observations during August 1985 over Greenland and the North American Arctic revealed that dense, discrete haze layers were common above 850 mb. No such hazes were found near the surface in areas remote from local sources of particles. The haze layers aloft were characterized by large light-scattering coefficients due to dry particles (maximum value 1.24 × 10−4m−1) and relatively high total particle concentrations (maximum value 3100 cm−3). Sulfate was the dominant ionic component of the aerosol (0.06 – 1.9 μg m−3); carbon soot was also present. Evidence for relatively fresh aerosols, accompanied by NO2 and O3 depletion, was found near, but not within, the haze layers. The hazes probably derived from anthropogenic sources and/or biomass burning at midlatitudes. It is hypothesized that the scavenging of particles by stratus clouds plays an important role in reducing the frequency and intensity of hazes at the surface in the Arctic in summer. Since the detection of haze layers aloft through measurements of column-integrated parameters from the surface (e.g., by lidar) cannot be carried out reliably when clouds are present, such measurements have likely underestimated the occurrence of haze layers in the Arctic, particularly in summer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A modest operational program of systematic aircraft measurements can resolve key satellite aerosol data record limitations. Satellite observations provide frequent global aerosol amount maps but offer only loose aerosol property constraints needed for climate and air quality applications. We define and illustrate the feasibility of flying an aircraft payload to measure key aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical properties in situ. The flight program could characterize major aerosol airmass types statistically, at a level of detail unobtainable from space. It would 1) enhance satellite aerosol retrieval products with better climatology assumptions and 2) improve translation between satellite-retrieved optical properties and species-specific aerosol mass and size simulated in climate models to assess aerosol forcing, its anthropogenic components, and other environmental impacts. As such, Systematic Aircraft Measurements to Characterize Aerosol Air Masses (SAM-CAAM) could add value to data records representing several decades of aerosol observations from space; improve aerosol constraints on climate modeling; help interrelate remote sensing, in situ, and modeling aerosol-type definitions; and contribute to future satellite aerosol missions. Fifteen required variables are identified and four payload options of increasing ambition are defined to constrain these quantities. "Option C" could meet all the SAM-CAAM objectives with about 20 instruments, most of which have flown before, but never routinely several times per week, and never as a group. Aircraft integration and approaches to data handling, payload support, and logistical considerations for a long-term, operational mission are discussed. SAM-CAAM is feasible because, for most aerosol sources and specified seasons, particle properties tend to be repeatable, even if aerosol loading varies.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN48931 , Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (ISSN 0003-0007) (e-ISSN 1520-0477); 98; 10; 2215-2228
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This report assesses the potential atmospheric impacts of a proposed fleet of high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft. The purpose of the report is to assess the effects of HSCT's on atmospheric composition and climate in order to provide a scientific basis for making technical, commercial, and environmental policy decisions regarding the HSCT fleet. The work summarized here was carried out as part of NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (a component of the High-Speed Research Program) as well as other NASA, U.S., and international research programs. The principal focus is on change in stratospheric ozone concentrations. The impact on climate change is also a concern. The report describes progress in understanding atmospheric processes, the current state of understanding of HSCT emissions, numerical model predictions of HSCT impacts, the principal uncertainties in atmospheric predictions, and the associated sensitivities in predicted effects of HSCT'S.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: NASA/TP-1999-209237 , Rept-99B00055 , NAS 1.60:209237
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This report assesses the potential atmospheric impacts of a proposed fleet of high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft. The purpose of the report is to assess the effects of HSCT's on atmospheric composition and climate in order to provide a scientific basis for making technical, commercial, and environmental policy decisions regarding the HSCT fleet. The work summarized here was carried out as part of NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (a component of the High-Speed Research Program) as well as other NASA, U.S., and international research programs. The principal focus is on change in stratospheric ozone concentrations. The impact on climate change is also a concern. The report describes progress in understanding atmospheric processes, the current state of understanding of HSCT emissions, numerical model predictions of HSCT impacts, the principal uncertainties in atmospheric predictions, and the associated sensitivities in predicted effects of HSCT's.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: NASA/TP-1999-209237 , NAS 1.60:209237 , Rept-99B00055
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines in June 1991 has resulted in increases in the surface and mass concentrations of aerosol particles in the lower stratosphere. Airborne measurements made at midlatitudes between 15 and 21 km from August 1991 to March 1992 show that, prior to December 1991, the Pinatubo aerosol cloud varied widely in microphysical properties such as size distribution, number, surface and volume concentrations and was also spatially variable. Aerosol surface area concentration was found to be highly correlated to extinction at visible and near-infrared wavelenghts throughout the measurement period. Similarly, backscatter at common lidar wavelengths was a good predictor of aerosol volume concentrations. These results support the use of satellite extinction measurements to estimate aerosol volume or mass if temporal changes in the relationships between the variables are considered.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 20; 22; p. 2555-2558
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The eruption of the Mt. Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines in June 1991 has resulted in increases in the surface and mass concentrations of aerosol particles in the lower stratosphere. Airborne measurements made at midlatitudes between 15 and 21 km from August 1991 to March 1992 show that, prior to December 1991, the Pinatubo aerosol cloud varied widely in microphysical properties such as size distribution, number, surface and volume concentrations and was also spatially variable. Aerosol surface area concentration was found to be highly correlated to extinction at visible and near-infrared wavelengths throughout the measurement period. Similarly, backscatter at common lidar wavelengths was a good predictor of aerosol volume concentrations. These results support the use of satellite extinction measurements to estimate aerosol surface and of lidar measurements to estimate aerosol volume or mass if temporal changes in the relationships between the variables are considered.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2 Air Parcel Trajectories (ISSN 0094-8534); 20; 22; 2555-2558; NASA-TM-112699
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This report summarizes the participation of the University of Denver in an airborne measurement program, SULFUR 6, which was undertaken in late September and early October of 1998 by the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR). Scientific findings from two papers that have been published or accepted and from one manuscript that is in preparation are presented. The SULFUR 6 experiment was designed to investigate the emissions from subsonic aircraft to constrain calculations of possible atmospheric chemical and climatic effects. The University of Denver effort contributed toward the following SULFUR 6 goals: (1) To investigate the relationship between fuel sulfur content (FSC--mass of sulfur per mass of fuel) and particle number and mass emission index (El--quantity emitted per kg of fuel burned); (2) To provide upper and lower limits for the mass conversion efficiency (nu) of fuel sulfur to gaseous and particulate sulfuric acid; (3) To constrain models of volatile particle nucleation and growth by measuring the particle size distribution between 3 and 100 nm at aircraft plume ages ranging from 10(exp -1) to 10(exp 3) s; (4) To determine microphysical and optical properties and bulk chemical composition of soot particles in aircraft exhaust; and (5) To investigate the differences in particle properties between aircraft plumes in contrail and non-contrail situations. The experiment focused on emissions from the ATTAS research aircraft (a well characterized, but older technology turbojet) and from an in-service Boeing 737-300 aircraft provided by Lufthansa, with modem, high-bypass turbofan engines. Measurements were made from the DLR Dassault Falcon 900 aircraft, a modified business jet. The Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Program (AEAP) provided funding to operate an instrument, the nucleation-mode aerosol size spectrometer (N-MASS), during the SULFUR 6 campaign and to analyze the data. The N-MASS was developed at the University of Denver with the support of NOAA's Office of Global Programs and NASA's AEAP and measures particle size distributions in the 4-100 nm range.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This grant was awarded to complete testing and calibration of a new instrument, the nuclei-mode aerosol size spectrometer (N-MASS), following its use in the WB-57F Aerosol Measurement (WAM) campaign in early 1998. The N-MASS measures the size distribution of particles in the 4-60 nm diameter range with 1-Hz response at typical free tropospheric conditions. Specific tasks to have been completed under the auspices of this award were: 1) to experimentally determine the instrumental sampling efficiency; 2) to determine the effects of varying temperatures and flows on N-MASS performance; and 3) to calibrate the N-MASS at typical flight conditions as operated in WAM. The work outlined above has been completed, and a journal manuscript based on this work and that describes the performance of the N-MASS is in preparation. Following a brief description of the principles of operation of the instrument, the major findings of this study are described.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Atmospheric particles were collected in the midlatitude upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) by inetrial impaction for subsequent electron microscopy and individual particle element analysis. More than 97% of particles analyzed on impactor substrates exposed in the LS contained only O and S in detectable quantities; these particles are believed to be acidic sulfate. Nonsulfate materials seen in the remaining particles included soot, other c-rich substances and crustal materials. Although not predominantly sulfate, usually carried a sulfer-rich coating in the LS. Samples collected very near and just below the tropopause were also dominated by sulfates. The fraction of sulfate particles analyzed on impactor substrates exposed in the UT was 91-94% of the total particle concentration. Nonsulfate substances observed in the UT samples included crustal-type material, hydrated marine salts, carbon-rich materials of several types, and metal-containing substances of uncertain origin. Most of these UT particles were not coated with detectable quantitites of sulfate.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 21; 23; p. 2587-2590
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  • 10
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