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  • 1
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Cesium isotopes and90Sr have been determined in the inflow and outflow rivers of a Norwegian subalpine lake. The lake is situated in an area contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. Sampling was carried out during the spring peak discharge period associated with snowmelt. Transported coatse particulate plant material was collected by traps. Particles and colloids were removed from water samples by hollow fibre ultrafiltration. The results illustrate that run-off during the spring snowmelt is an important pathway for these radionuclides. The cesium isotopes are predominantly transported as colloids, while90Sr is present in the form of low molecular weight mobile species. Based on lake budget calculations, more than 50% of the cesium input is retained in the lake, while more than 90% of the90Sr is transported through the lake and into lower parts of the drainage system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Minnows Phoxinus phoxinus, studied 30 years after the first record of the species in the subalpine Lake Øvre Heimdalsvatn, Norway, ≥55 mm LT, were estimated to have densities of c. 4.7 kg ha−1 (120 000 fish) in June 1999 and 2.1 kg ha−1 (63 000 fish) in June 2000. The population was characterized by low individual growth, delayed age of maturity and lived longer when compared to values reported in a previous study in the early phase of its establishment, and other values reported in the literature. Most minnows reached sexual maturity at 4–5 years and 〉55 mm LT. Although the estimated annual survival of minnows 〉55 mm was low (S=0.2), ages up to 13 years were recorded. Despite a moderate increase in the population size during the last 20 years, the present reduction in individual growth, followed by delayed age of maturity, suggested the existence of density-dependent effects on the population dynamics of the minnows. The minnows were restricted to the littoral zone and near bottom areas. A vertical or horizontal expansion in habitat use was probably prevented by the presence of piscivorous brown trout Salmo trutta.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Freshwater biology 46 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. Invertebrate drift was studied in a glacially fed river and a non-glacial tributary in western Norway. Samples were taken during two consecutive 24-h periods in May, July and October 1997. The 3 months are characterized by snowmelt, ice melt and rainfall runoff, respectively. The main glacial river has colder, more turbid water, especially during the period of maximum ice melt during summer.2. Chironomidae, especially the genus Diamesa, dominated the drift in the main river in May and October, constituting 97 and 99% of total numbers, respectively. Simuliidae, Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera were the other main components.3. A comparison of drift and benthos data revealed that the tributary was of little significance for colonization of the main glacial river. Only some additional species in very low numbers were recorded downstream of the confluence.4. During July significant differences in diel drift pattern of Chironomidae and Simuliidae existed between the glacial and non-glacial reaches. There was a mid-day peak independent of discharge in the glacial river, but this peak was not noted in the tributary. Species of the genus Diamesa appear to be adapted for daytime drift, possibly evolved through the absence of predators and competitors that are typical of rhithral systems where nocturnal drift is more usual.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. A study on glacial stream ecosystems was carried out in six regions across Europe, from Svalbard to the French Pyrenees. The main aim was to test the validity of the conceptual model of Milner & Petts (1994) with regard to the zonation of chironomids of glacier-fed rivers along altitudinal and latitudinal gradient.2. Channel stability varied considerably, both on the latitudinal and altitudinal scale, being lowest in the northern regions (Svalbard, Iceland and Norway) and the Swiss Alps. Water temperature at the upstream sites was always 〈2 °C.3. There was a prominent difference in taxonomic richness between the Alpine and the northern European regions, with a higher number of taxa in the south. In all regions, the chironomid community was characterized by the genus Diamesa and the subfamily Orthocladiinae. Of a total of 63 taxa recorded, two (Diamesa bertrami and Orthocladius frigidus) were common in all the regions except Svalbard.4. On the basis of cluster analysis, seven distinct groups of sites were evident amongst glacial-fed systems of the five regions (Pyrenees excluded). This classification separated the glacier-fed streams on geographical, latitudinal and downstream gradients.5. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) of environmental variables was carried out using 41 taxa at 105 sites. Slope, water depth, distance from source, water temperature and the Pfankuch channel stability index were found to be the major explanatory environmental variables. The analysis separated Diamesinae and typical upstream orthoclads from the other chironomids by low temperature and high channel instability.6. In all six regions, Diamesa was present closest to the glacier. Within 200 m of the glacier snout, other genera of Diamesinae were found together with Orthocladiinae. Pioneer taxa like Diamesa species coexisted with later colonizers like Eukiefferiella minor/fittkaui in relatively unstable channels.7. The longitudinal succession of chironomid assemblages across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in glacial streams followed the same pattern, with similar genera and groups of species. The general aspects of the conceptual model of Milner & Petts (1994) were supported. However, Diamesa species have wider temperature limits than predicted and other Diamesinae as well as Orthocladiinae colonize metakryal habitats.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Freshwater biology 2 (1972), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Data is presented on the life cycles of Leptopblehia vespertina (L.) and L. marginata (L.) in Llyn Dinas, an oligotrophic North Wales lake. Both species are univoltine and growth continues throughout the winter although somewhat retarded. Except during July and August there is a clear size separation of the two species, L. marginata being larger and emerging earlier. The egg incubation period was determined directly from laboratory studies. The results are discussed in relation to previous research in the English Lake District.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Entomology 27 (1982), S. 119-147 
    ISSN: 0066-4170
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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