PACS: 42.70; 66.30
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
Abstract. The erbium incorporation into LiNbO3 by diffusion doping is investigated in detail by means of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry, Rutherford Backscattering, Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray Standing Wave technique and optical site-selective spectroscopy. The diffusion of erbium in LiNbO3 can be described by Fick’s laws of diffusion with a concentration-independent diffusion coefficient. The diffusion constants and activation energies for Z-cut (X-cut) LiNbO3 are 4.8×10-5 cm2/s (12.0×10-5 cm2/s) and 2.28 eV (2.44 eV), respectively. A limited solubility of erbium in LiNbO3 has to be taken into account increasing exponentially with rising temperature. During the first step of diffusion an Er x Nb y -oxide layer is formed at the surface of the sample acting as diffusion reservoir. Erbium is incorporated into LiNbO3 on vacant Li-sites slightly shifted from the original Li-position along the (-c)-direction. Site-selective spectroscopy found four distinguishable energetically different erbium centres at this lattice site resulting from locally different symmetries of the crystal field.
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