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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 71 (2000), S. 536-545 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: We describe a miniature reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for in situ planetary surface analysis. The laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) measures the elemental and isotopic composition of regolith materials without any sample preparation or high-voltage source extraction. The small size (〈2×103 cm3) and low mass (∼2 kg) of LAMS, due to its fully coaxial design and two-stage reflectron, satisfy the very strict resource limitations of landed science missions to solar system bodies. Microscopic surface samples are obtained with a short-pulse laser focused to a spot with a diameter ∼30–50 μm. Coupled with a microimager, LAMS can interactively select and analyze a range of compositional regions (with lateral motion) and access unweathered, subsurface materials (with repeated pulses). The mass resolution is sufficient to distinguish isotopic peaks at unit masses, and the detection limits are on the order of a few ppm. The design and calibration method of a prototype LAMS device is given, including the development of preliminary relative sensitivity coefficients for major element bulk abundance measurements. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present direct current (dc) magnetization M(T,H) and alternating current (ac) susceptibility χac(T,H,f) data for the quasi-one-dimensional molecule-based ferrimagnet [MnTPP]::+[TCNE].−⋅2PhMe (TPP=meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato, TCNE=tetracyanoethylene). Static scaling of the real part χ′ of the ac susceptibility and data collapse of M(T,H) over a limited reduced temperature range above Tc≈13 K lead to the critical exponents γ≈1.6, β≈0.5, and δ≈4.2. Below Tc, χac depends sensitively on frequency and exhibits a striking double-peak structure similar to that found in reentrant spin glasses. Possible models for the frequency dependence of the peaks observed in χac are discussed. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: We present details of a miniature integrated time-of-flight mass spectrometer and sample handling system under development to address some of the needs for in situ sample analysis on landed missions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIII; LPI-Contrib-1109
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GC/MS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Sixth International Conference on Mars; LPI-Contrib-1164
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: The determination of the abundance and chemical and isotopic composition of organic molecules in comets and those that might be found in protected environments at Mars is a first step toward understanding prebiotic chemistries on these solar system bodies. While future sample return missions from Mars and comets will enable detailed chemical and isotopic analysis with a wide range of analytical techniques, precursor insitu investigations can complement these missions and facilitate the identification of optimal sites for sample return. Robust automated experiments that make efficient use of limited spacecraft power, mass, and data volume resources are required for use by insitu missions. Within these constraints we continue to explore a range of instrument techniques and measurement protocols that can maximize the return from such insitu investigations.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 13; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-13
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Dragonfly is a rotorcraft lander mission, selected as a finalist in NASA's New Frontiers Program, that is designed to sample materials and determine the surface composition in different geologic settings on Titan. This revolutionary mission concept would explore diverse locations to characterize the habitability of Titan's environment, to investigate how far prebiotic chemistry has progressed, and to search for chemical signatures that could be indicative of water-based and/or hydrocarbon-based life. Here we describe Dragonfly's capabilities to determine the composition of a variety of surface units on Titan, from elemental components to complex organic molecules. The compositional investigation ncludes characterization of local surface environments and finely sampled materials. The Dragonfly flexible sampling approach can robustly accommodate materials from Titan's most intriguing surface environments.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN53846 , Lunar andPlanetary Science Conference; Mar 19, 2018 - Mar 23, 2018; The Woodlands, TX; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: The exploration of Venus continues to be a top priority of planetary science. The Planetary Decadal Survey goals for inner-planet exploration seek to discern the origin and diversity of terrestrial planets, understand how the evolution of terrestrial planets relates to the evolution of life, and explore the processes that control climate on Earth-like planets [1]. These goals can only be realized through continued and extensive exploration of Venus, the most mysterious of the terrestrial planets, remarkably different from the Earth despite the gross similarities between these twin planets. It is unknown if this apparent divergence was intrinsic, programmed during accretion from distinct nebular reservoirs, or a consequence of either measured or catastrophic processes during planetary evolution. Even if the atmosphere of Venus is a more recent development, its relationship to the resurfacing of the planets enigmatic surface is not well understood. Resolving such uncertainties directly addresses the hypothesis of a more clement, possibly water-rich era in Venus past as well as whether Earth could become more Venus-like in the future.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN18258 , International Workshop on Instrumentation for Planetary Missions; Nov 04, 2014 - Nov 07, 2014; Greenbelt, MD; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: We present details of a new miniature laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with improved resolution and sensitivity, for in situ analysis of elemental, isotopic, and organic/molecular composition.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI; LPI-Contrib-1000
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Since the Viking Program, quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) instruments have been used to explore a wide survey of planetary targets in our solar system, including (from the inner to outer reaches): Venus (Pioneer); our moon (LADEE); Mars (Viking, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory); and, Saturns largest moon Titan (Cassini-Huygens). More recently, however, ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) instruments have found a niche as smaller, versatile alternatives to traditional quadrupole mass analyzers, capable of in situ characterization of planetary environments and the search for organic matter. For example, whereas typical QMS systems are limited to a mass range up to 500 Da and normally require multiple RF frequencies and pressures of less than 10(exp -6) mbar for optimal operation, ITMS instruments commonly reach upwards of 1000 Da or more on a single RF frequency, and function in higher pressure environments up to 10(exp -3) mbar.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN18368 , International Workshop on Instrumentation for Planetary Missions (IPM-2014); Nov 04, 2014 - Nov 07, 2014; Greenbelt, MD; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A wide diversity of planetary surfaces in the solar system represent high priority targets for in situ compositional and contextual analysis as part of future missions. The planned mission portfolio will inform our knowledge of the chemistry at play on Mars, icy moons, comets, and primitive asteroids, which can lead to advances in our understanding of the interplay between inorganic and organic building blocks that led to the evolution of habitable environments on Earth and beyond. In many of these environments, the presence of water or aqueously altered mineralogy is an important indicator of habitable environments that are present or may have been present in the past. As a result, the search for complex organic chemistry that may imply the presence of a feedstock, if not an inventory of biosignatures, is naturally aligned with targeted analyses of water-rich surface materials. Here we describe the two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) analytical technique that has seen broad application in the study of organics in meteoritic samples, now demonstrated to be compatible with an in situ investigation with technique improvements to target high priority planetary environments as part of a future scientific payload. An ultraviolet (UV) pulsed laser is used in previous and current embodiments of laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDMS) to produce ionized species traceable to the mineral and organic composition of a planetary surface sample. L2MS, an advanced technique in laser mass spectrometry, is selective to the aromatic organic fraction of a complex sample, which can provide additional sensitivity and confidence in the detection of specific compound structures. Use of a compact two-step laser mass spectrometer prototype has been previously reported to provide specificity to key aromatic species, such as PAHs, nucleobases, and certain amino acids. Recent improvements in this technique have focused on the interaction between the mineral matrix and the organic analyte. The majority of planetary targets of astrobiological interest are characterized by the presence of water or hydrated mineral phases. Water signatures can indicate a history of available liquid water that may have played an important role in the chemical environment of these planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. The studies we report here investigate the influence of water content on the detectability of organics by L2MS in planetary analog samples.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN29318 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; Mar 21, 2016 - Mar 25, 2016; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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