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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 71 (2000), S. 536-545 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: We describe a miniature reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for in situ planetary surface analysis. The laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) measures the elemental and isotopic composition of regolith materials without any sample preparation or high-voltage source extraction. The small size (〈2×103 cm3) and low mass (∼2 kg) of LAMS, due to its fully coaxial design and two-stage reflectron, satisfy the very strict resource limitations of landed science missions to solar system bodies. Microscopic surface samples are obtained with a short-pulse laser focused to a spot with a diameter ∼30–50 μm. Coupled with a microimager, LAMS can interactively select and analyze a range of compositional regions (with lateral motion) and access unweathered, subsurface materials (with repeated pulses). The mass resolution is sufficient to distinguish isotopic peaks at unit masses, and the detection limits are on the order of a few ppm. The design and calibration method of a prototype LAMS device is given, including the development of preliminary relative sensitivity coefficients for major element bulk abundance measurements. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The detailed characterization of organic compounds that might be preserved in rocks, ices, or sedimentary layers on Mars would be a significant step toward resolving the question of the habitability and potential for life on that planet. The fact that the Viking gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) did not detect organic compounds should not discourage further investigations since (a) an oxidizing environment in the near surface fines analyzed by Viking is likely to have destroyed many reduced carbon species; (b) there are classes of refractory or partially oxidized species such as carboxylic acids that would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS; and (c) the Viking landing sites are not representative of Mars overall. These factors motivate the development of advanced in situ analytical protocols to carry out a comprehensive survey of organic compounds in martian regolith, ices, and rocks. We combine pyrolysis GCMS for analysis of volatile species, chemical derivatization for transformation of less volatile organics, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) for analysis of elements and more refractory, higher-mass organics. To evaluate this approach and enable a comparison with other measurement techniques we analyze organics in Mars simulant samples.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Missions and Instruments: Hopes and Hope Fulfilled; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GC/MS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Sixth International Conference on Mars; LPI-Contrib-1164
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: The determination of the abundance and chemical and isotopic composition of organic molecules in comets and those that might be found in protected environments at Mars is a first step toward understanding prebiotic chemistries on these solar system bodies. While future sample return missions from Mars and comets will enable detailed chemical and isotopic analysis with a wide range of analytical techniques, precursor insitu investigations can complement these missions and facilitate the identification of optimal sites for sample return. Robust automated experiments that make efficient use of limited spacecraft power, mass, and data volume resources are required for use by insitu missions. Within these constraints we continue to explore a range of instrument techniques and measurement protocols that can maximize the return from such insitu investigations.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 13; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-13
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present direct current (dc) magnetization M(T,H) and alternating current (ac) susceptibility χac(T,H,f) data for the quasi-one-dimensional molecule-based ferrimagnet [MnTPP]::+[TCNE].−⋅2PhMe (TPP=meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato, TCNE=tetracyanoethylene). Static scaling of the real part χ′ of the ac susceptibility and data collapse of M(T,H) over a limited reduced temperature range above Tc≈13 K lead to the critical exponents γ≈1.6, β≈0.5, and δ≈4.2. Below Tc, χac depends sensitively on frequency and exhibits a striking double-peak structure similar to that found in reentrant spin glasses. Possible models for the frequency dependence of the peaks observed in χac are discussed. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The next landed missions to Mars, such as the planned Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars, will require sample analysis capabilities refined well beyond what has been flown to date. A key science objective driving this requirement is the determination of the carbon inventory of Mars, and particularly the detection of organic compounds. While the gas chromatograph mass spectrometers (GCMS) on the Viking landers did not detect any indigenous organics in near surface fines, it is possible that these measurements were not representative of Mars on the whole. That is, those compounds to which the GC/MS was sensitive would likely not have survived the strong oxidative decomposition in the regolith at the landing sites in question. The near surface fines could very well contain a significant quantity of refractory compounds that would not have been volatilized in the sample ovens on Viking. It is also possible that volatile organics exist on Mars in sedimentary, subsurface, or polar niches.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Sixth International Conference on Mars; 20-25 Jul. 2003; Pasadena, CA; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A miniature reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for in situ planetary surface analysis is described. The laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) measures the regolith's elemental and isotopic composition without high-voltage source extraction or sample preparation. The compact size (〈 2 x 10(exp 3) cubic cm) and low mass (approximately 2 kg) of LAMS, due to its fully coaxial design and two-stage reflectron, fall within the strict resource limitations of landed science missions to solar system bodies. A short-pulse laser focused to a spot with a diameter approximately 30-50 micrometers is used to obtain microscopic surface samples. Assisted by a microimager, LAMS can interactively select and analyze a range of compositional regions (with lateral motion) and with repeated pulses can access unweathered, subsurface materials. The mass resolution is calibrated to distinguish isotopic peaks at unit masses, and detection limits are on resolved to a few ppm. The design and calibration method of a prototype LAMS device is described, which include the development of preliminary relative sensitivity coefficients for major element bulk abundance measurements.
    Keywords: Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry
    Type: Review of Scientific Instruments (ISSN 0034-6748); 7; 2; 536-545
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: We present details of a new miniature laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with improved resolution and sensitivity, for in situ analysis of elemental, isotopic, and organic/molecular composition.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI; LPI-Contrib-1000
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: GSFC.JA.6690.2012
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Vision and Voyages Planetary Decadal Survey identified a Saturn Probe mission as one of the high priority New Frontiers mission targets[1]. Many aspects of the Saturn system will not have been fully investigated at the end of the Cassini mission, because of limitations in its implementation and science instrumentation. Fundamental measurements of the interior structure and noble gas abundances of Saturn are needed to better constrain models of Solar System formation, as well as to provide an improved context for exoplanet systems. The SPRITE mission will fulfill the scientific goals of the Decadal Survey Saturn probe mission. It will also provide ground truth for quantities constrained by Cassini and conduct new investigations that improve our understanding of Saturn's interior structure and composition, and by proxy, those of extrasolar giant planets.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN33229 , International Planetary Probe Workshop; 13-17 Jun. 2016; Laurel, MD; United States
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