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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Ultrastructural observations of the gut caecal epithelium of Pricea multae revealed the presence of pigmented and non-pigmented digestive cells. The pigmented digestive cells were separated by a connecting syncytium and appeared elongated,with numerous vesicles appearing toward the apical cell surface. They were characterised by granular inclusions in the form of electron-dense pigments, which were eliminated by exocytosis. These cells and their lamellar connecting syncytium were observed projecting into the gut lumen. Transverse sections of the gut epithelium revealed intact portions of digestive cells lying in the lumen. Endocytosis at the apical surface of the pigmented digestive cells gave rise to the formation of granular inclusions, which appeared as electron-dense pigments confined to lysosomal vesicles within the digestive system. Electron X-ray microanalysis indicated these granules were primarily composed of iron, demonstrating that P. multae is a blood-feeder. The connecting syncytium, while probably involved in a structural, supportive role, may additionally function in the absorption of micromolecular nutrients from the host blood meal.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The localisation and distribution of neuropeptide F (NPF)-immunoreactivity (IR) in the monogenean fish-gill parasite,Diclidophora merlangi, have been investigated by whole-mount immunocytochemistry interfaced with confocal scanning laser microscopy and, at the ultrastructural level, by indirect immunogold labeling. Using antisera directed to intact synthetic NPF (Moniezia expansa, residues 1–39) or to the C-terminal decapeptide (residues 30–39) of synthetic NPF (M. expansa), immunostaining was found throughout the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS), including the innervation of the reproductive system. Immunoreactivity was found to be more intense using the antiserum to the C-terminal decapeptide fragment of NPF. At the subcellular level, gold labeling of NPF-IR was found exclusively over the contents of dense-cored vesicles that occupied nerve axons of both the CNS and the PNS. The distribution pattern of immunostaining for NPF mirrored exactly that previously documented for the vertebrate pancreatic polypeptide (PP) family of peptides and for FMRFamide. This finding and the results of preabsorption experiments strongly suggest that NPF is the predominant native neuropeptide inD. merlangi and that it accounts for most of the immunostaining previously obtained with PP and FMRFamide antisera.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Transmission electron microscope studies of the tegument of the tropical marine fish monogenean parasite Pseudothoracocotyla indica describe surface specialisations and detail the ultrastructure of the tegument and the haptor. The tegument consists of a syncytium, numerous electron-dense granules, electron-lucent vesicles and large multivesicular bodies. The posterior tegumental syncytium is infolded to form tegumental ridges that are present on both the ventral and dorsal surfaces. A thin coat of glycocalyx is present on the tegument surface. In contrast, the tegumental syncytium of the haptor is relatively thin, containing electron-dense granules and various-sized electron-lucent vesicles. Exocytosis of the electron-dense and electron-lucent vesicles apparently occurs in the syncytium of the haptor and general body surface. Tegumental damage was observed on the dorsal surface in the mid-body region and may possibly have been due to natural mechanical forces. The haptor consists of electron-dense clamp sclerites embedded within a matrix covered by the tegumental syncytium. The sclerites are connected to each other and to the basal lamina by radially oriented muscle fibres. The haptor is richly supplied with non-myelinated nerve axons. Both uniciliated and non-ciliated presumed sensory structures are present on the body surface and haptor. Uniciliated sensory structures were found mainly around the oral sucker. Groups of neurons and nerve processes containing neurosecretory vesicles were frequently observed in the vicinity of the clamps. Electron immunogold labeling studies demonstrated that neuropeptide F [NPF (Moniezia expansa)] immunoreactivity was confined to electron-dense-cored neurosecretory vesicles in nerve fibres from the posterior and haptor regions of the fluke.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Infections with Empleurosoma pyriforme occur between successive secondary gill lamellae on both sides of the primary lamella of Therapon jarbua. The haptoral disc bears two pairs of anchors and a pair of connecting transverse bars. The attachment of the parasite to the host gill causes inflammation, erosion and degeneration of the gill epithelia. The ventral anchors consist of an inner core of irregularly arranged, electron-dense fibrils and a smooth outer core of electron-lucent fibrils, whereas the surface of the dorsal anchors is ridged. Both the dorsal and the ventral anchors may be extended or withdrawn. The connecting transverse bars consist of longitudinally arranged fibrils in an electron-dense matrix, whereas the tendons consist of fibrils, supported in a less electron-dense matrix, which interconnect the anchor erector-protractor muscles and the haptor muscles. Two types of perikarya are present. The less common type contain large multivesicular bodies and small electron-dense granules and are located only in the haptor region. The second and more common perikarya are present throughout the body surface. The cytoplasmic syncytium contains numerous electron-dense granules and electron-lucent vesicles. Beneath the syncytium, unicellular epidermal gland cells contain electron-dense granules. Neurones containing numerous electron-dense vesicles are present in the haptor region. Uniciliate presumed sensory receptors are distributed over the body surface. Groups of ciliated sensory structures are present in the forebody. Ciliated and non-ciliated presumed sensory receptors are present in the sleeve cavity of the anchors, on the haptor and in the vicinity of the oral apertures.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An electron immunogold-labeling technique was used in conjunction with a post-embedding procedure to demonstrate for the first time the ultrastructural distribution of the parasitic platyhelminth neuropeptide, neuropeptide F (NPF(, in the nervous system of the cestodeMoniezia expansa. Two axon types, distinguished by their populations of different-sized electron-dense vesicles, were identified. Immunogold labeling demonstrated an apparent homogeneity of PP, FMR Famide and NPF (M. expansa) antigenic sites throughout the larger dense-cored vesicles within the central nervous system. Triple labeling clearly demonstrated the co-localisation of immunoreactivities (IR) for NPF, PP and FMR Famide within the same dense-cored vesicles. The presence of NPF-IR within the vesicles occupying the perikaryon of the neuronal cell body indicated that the peptides had undergone post-translational C-terminal amidation prior to entering the axon. Antigen pre-absorption experiments using NPF prevented labeling with either PP or FMR famide antisera, and the failure of these antisera to block NPF-IR supports the view that some, if not all, of the PP/FMR Famide-IR is due to NPF-like peptides.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A post-embedding immunogold technique was used to examine the subcellular distribution of immunoreactivities to the invertebrate peptide, FMR-Famide, and to vertebrate pancreatic polypeptide (PP) within the central nervous system of the trematode,Fasciola hepatica. Gold labeling of peptide was localised exclusively over both dense-cored and ellipsoidal electron-dense vesicles (with a homogeneous matrix) present within nerve cell bodies, small and ‘giant’ nerve processes of the neuropile in the cerebral ganglia and transverse commissure, as well as in the main longitudinal nerve cords. Double labeling demonstrated an apparent co-localisation of FMRFamide and PP immunoreactivities in the same dense-cored vesicles, although populations of ellipsoidal electron-dense vesicles that labeled solely for FMRFamide were also evident. Antigen pre-absorption studies indicated little, if any, cross-reactivity of the two antisera.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of fish diseases 23 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Microsporidian disease of prawns has generally been recognized by the progressive white opacity associated with the musculature. Such microsporidian-infected prawns are known as ‘cotton shrimp’, ‘milky white’ or ‘chalky white’ prawns. Microsporidians have been reported from prawns of several genera, notably Penaeus, Pandalus and Crangon ( Sprague & Couch 1971; Newman, Johnson & Pauley 1976). These diseases are highly pathogenic and cause epizootics in feral crustacean populations ( Iverson & Manning 1959; Overstreet 1973; Lightner, Fontaine & Hanks 1975; Sindermann 1990).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A mycosis in larval tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, is described for the first time from India. The hyphae of Lagenidium callinectes are contorted, irregularly branched, sparingly septate, and contain a cell wall and membrane, vacuoles, mito chondria, ribosomes, small and large vesicles, and Woronin bodies. The spores occur singly or in pairs. The fungal mycelium may either invade and embed itself in the tissues, or alternatively, replace all the muscle tissues of the infected larval P. monodon. Fungus infected, untreated populations of nauplii, zoea and myksis exhibited mortalities of 5.33 ± 0.55%, 24.68 ± 4.58% and 47.89 ± 0.27%, respectively. A 0.5 ppm treatment with trifluralin significantly reduced the mortality of infected larval populations (i.e. 1.1% nauplii, 3.28% zoea and 5.21% myksis mortality). Lagenidium sp. exhibited growth in potato dextrose agar medium and in Sabouraud's agar at 28 °C.
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