Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
In spite of a geometrical rotation into radial and transverse parts, two- or three-component in-seam seismic data used for underground fault detection often suffer from the problem of overmoding ‘noise’. Special recompression filters are required to remove this multimode dispersion so that conventional reflection seismic data processing methods, e.g. CMP stacking techniques, can be applied afterwards.A normal-mode superposition approach is used to design such multimode recompression filters. Based on the determination of the Green's function in the far-field, the normal-mode superposition approach is usually used for the computation of synthetic single- and multi-mode (transmission) seismograms for vertically layered media. From the filter theory's point of view these Green's functions can be considered as dispersion filters which are convolved with a source wavelet to produce the synthetic seismograms. Thus, the design of multimode recompression filters can be reduced to a determination of the inverse of the Green's function. Two methods are introduced to derive these inverse filters. The first operates in the frequency domain and is based on the amplitude and phase spectrum of the Green's function. The second starts with the Green's function in the time domain and calculates two-sided recursive filters.To test the performance of the normal-mode superposition approach for in-seam seismic problems, it is first compared and applied to synthetic finite-difference seismograms of the Love-type which include a complete solution of the wave equation. It becomes obvious that in the case of one and two superposing normal modes, the synthetic Love seam-wave seismograms based on the normal-mode superposition approach agree exactly with the finite-difference data if the travel distance exceeds two dominant wavelengths. Similarly, the application of the one- and two-mode recompression filters to the finite-difference data results in an almost perfect reconstruction of the source wavelet already two dominant wavelengths away from the source.Subsequently, based on the dispersion analysis of an in-seam seismic transmission survey, the normal-mode superposition approach is used both to compute one- and multi-mode synthetic seismograms and to apply one- and multimode recompression filters to the field data. The comparison of the one- and two-mode synthetic seismograms with the in-seam seismic transmission data reveals that arrival times, duration and shape of the wavegroups and their relative excitation strengths could well be modelled by the normal-mode superposition approach. The one-mode recompressions of the transmission seismograms result in non-dispersive wavelets whose temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio could clearly be improved. The simultaneous two-mode recompressions of the underground transmission data show that, probably due to band-limitation, the dispersion characteristics of the single modes could not be evaluated sufficiently accurately from the field data in the high-frequency range. Additional techniques which overcome the problem of band-limitation by modelling all of the enclosed single-mode dispersion characteristics up to the Nyquist frequency will be mandatory for future multimode applications.
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