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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 292 (1981), S. 177-177 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THE EFFECT of density on plant growth and mortality has been recently discussed by Schiel and Choat1. Studying two species of large brown seaweed, Ecklonia radiata and Sargassum sinclairii, they found that high density had a positive effect, in contrast to data for terrestrial plants. They ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Desiccation ; Fucoid ; Development ; Intertidal ecology ; Phaeophyta
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of tidal emersion on survivorship, photosynthesis and embryonic development was studied in 8 h old zygotes and 7 d old embryos of the intertidal brown alga Pelvetia fastigiata (J. Ag.) DeToni. Zygotes and embryos were outplanted for single low tides in the intertidal zone on the central coast of California (U.S.A.) during June, 1990. Both zygotes and embryos exhibited close to 100% survival when outplanted beneath the canopy of adult P. fastigiata. Embryos (7 d old) also exhibited high survival when outplanted in a red algal turf, the microhabitat where most successful recruitment occurs. However, zygotes (8 h old) experienced high mortality (65–90%) when outplanted in the turf microhabitat. Embryos and zygotes that survived emersion experienced sub-lethal stress that temporarily impaired light-saturated photosynthesis when plants were reimmersed in seawater. The effects of sub-lethal stress were more pronounced in 8 h old zygotes than 7 d embryos, and more severe in the turf microhabitat than beneath the adult Pelvetia canopy. Zygotes outplanted in the red algal turf did not re-establish net photosynthesis until at least 6 h after re-immersion. Photosynthesis was less inhibited in 8 h old zygotes outplanted beneath the adult Pelvetia canopy, and recovered to control (non-emersed) levels within 3 h of re-immersion. Embryos (7 d old) were able to achieve positive net photosynthesis immediately on re-immersion after emersion in the turf or canopy microhabitats. Emersion also retarded the rate of embryonic development in 8 h old zygotes, delaying the formation of primary rhizoids, which help to attach the plant to the substrate. For example, at 19 h post-fertilization, 75% of control (non-emersed) zygotes had developed rhizoids, compared to 3% and 30% for zygotes outplanted in the turf and canopy microhabitats. The different emersion responses of 8 h old zygotes and 7 d old embryos appeared to be related to their ability to tolerate cellular dehydration. Overall, our data suggest that the effects of sub-lethal stresses may have been underestimated in studies of intertidal ecology.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Herbivore ; Territorial behavior ; Productivity ; Coral reef algae ; Damselfish
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Synopsis Algal growth and damselfish (Eupomacentrus planifrons) territories were studied in two reef habitats at Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Damselfish territories were contiguous in the reef flat (0 to 2.5 m), where the algal composition and biomass varied from territory to territory. In contrast, on the lower reef terrace (22 m), damselfish territories were often spatially segregated. While the algal composition of the territories was more uniform on the reef terrace, the total algal biomass was lower than in the territories on the reef flat. Damselfish are largely herbivorous, and they defend their territories against most intruding fish, including a number of herbivorous species. Areas of the reef terrace outside of damselfish territories were heavily grazed by herbivorous fishes and contained only small quantities of non-crustose algae. The reef terrace territories were characterized by a multispecific turf of algae (greens, blue-greens, and reds) covering the Acropora cervicornis framework and by the leafy, brown alga, Lobophora variegata. A rapid reduction in the biomass of brown algae and filamentous algae was noted when damselfish were permanently removed from their territories. Only calcified, encrusting algae — plants apparently somewhat undesirable as fish food sources — would be common on the terrace zone of this reef if damselfish territories were absent. Damselfish territoriality may significantly influence the dynamics of some reefs by increasing the biomass of the algal turf thereby increasing; reef productivity. Since blue-green algae, potential nitrogen fixers, occur in these algal turfs, the fish may also be indirectly affecting reef nutrition.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Key words Algal turf ; Fucoid ; Periodicity ; Settlement ; Succession
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The daily settlement of eggs and zygotes of the monoecious brown alga Pelvetia compressa (J. Agardh) De Toni was measured on artificial substrata in areas inside and outside patches of adults in the high intertidal zone of central California. Settlement was generally 1–2 orders of magnitude higher under the adult canopy. This pattern seems to be due to the synchronous release of gametes during the daytime low tide. The release of gametes also appears periodic over longer time scales (e.g., 3- and 14-day cycles). In spite of the high availability of propagules under the adult canopy, juveniles were most abundant outside patches, where propagule availability was lower. In both areas, juveniles were disproportionately associated with patches of a red algal turf [primarily Endocladia muricata (Postels & Ruprecht) J. Agardh and Masticarpus papillata (C. Agardh) Kützing]. The turf, which is less common under the P. compressa canopy, may offer protection from dislodgment, grazing, and/or desiccation and thus facilitate recruitment at this site. Overall, post-settlement processes appear more important in determining population structure than does the availability of propagules in areas in and around patches of adults. However, the apparent small range of dispersal of P. compressa may make propagule availability an important limitation to the establishment of new populations and may restrict gene flow between populations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Baltic biogeography ; Fertilization ecology ; Osmotic stress ; Polyspermy ; Sperm motility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To understand the unique success of the marine seaweedFucus vesiculosus L. (PHaeophyceae) in the brackish Baltic Sea, the performance of gametes from Baltic [4.1–6.5‰S (Salinity)] and marine populations was studied. Sperm from BalticF. vesiculosus swam with a path velocity of c. 30–110 μm/s and could fertilize eggs in waters of salinities from 4 to 33‰S. In their natural water, Baltic sperm were not negatively phototactic, unlike marine sperm in seawater; this should decrease the sperm:egg concentration at the seafloor and reduce the likelihood of polyspermy. Marine (Iceland, Sweden) sperm in seawater had a path velocity of c. 80–100 μm/s, but performed poorly and could not fertilize eggs in natural or artificial Baltic water ≤6‰S; therefore, Baltic populations have adapted or acclimated to their brackish habitat. Baltic populations appear better adapted to their natural low salinities because, even after culturing Baltic and marine individuals in water from both the Baltic (6.5‰S) and the marine Skagerrak (21‰S), Baltic sperm were in both cases still able to swim and fertilize eggs at lower salinities (4‰S) than marine sperm; fertilization never occurred between marine gametes at 4–6‰S. However,F. vesiculosus acclimates to some salinities, since sperm from Baltic and marine males that had been cultured at 21‰S swam better (higher velocity, proportion that were motile and/or linearity) in marine salinities (21–33‰S) than when they were cultured at 6.5‰S. The effects of salinity on sperm motility and fertilization were osmolar rather than due to specific ionic requirements, over the tested range. The osmolalities (〈 c. 100 mmol/kg) at which fertilization success of Baltic gametes decreases nearly to zero correspond to the osmolality of Baltic water at the northernmost limit of distribution ofF. vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea. Therefore, the present range ofF. vesiculosus in the Baltic appears to correspond to the osmotic tolerance of the gametes. Very small natural or anthropogenic increases in ambient osmolality would be likely to cause a substantial expansion of this species into the inner Baltic.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The brown alga Fucus ceranoides L. was studied in several estuaries on the Isle of Man (Great Britain) in the summers of 1989 and 1990. The objective were to determine the success of natural fertilization in a dioecious organism with external fertilization and to contribute to our understanding of processes such as polyspermy blocks and propagule settlement under natural conditions. Gamete release occurred on a semilunar cycle near full and new moons; at such times, settlement densities of 500 zygotes cm-2 d-1 were common. Gamete release was largely restricted to daytime high tides. Fertilization success was high: about 95 to 100% of all eggs released were fertilized, and 1 to 9% of these zygotes were polyspermic. The incidence of polyspermy increased towards the upper limit of F. ceranoides in the estuary of the river Neb; this may be significant in the context of the Na+-dependent block against polyspermy. Levels of polyspermy were not related to fertilization success (R2=0.06). Rates of pronuclear migration and karyogamy determined in the laboratory were used as an internal clock to estimate when eggs were fertilized in the field. Most eggs were fertilized 30 to 120 min after plants were immersed by the incoming tide, which corresponded to the period 60 min before to 30 min after high tide. The high success of fertilization suggests that polyspermy blocks are important in nature, and, in combination with the high settlement of zygotes, shows that population size in F. ceranoides is determined by post-settlement mortality, not by propagule availability.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1998-07-01
    Print ISSN: 0012-9658
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9170
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley on behalf of Ecological Society of America (ESA).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1998-07-01
    Print ISSN: 0012-9658
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9170
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley on behalf of Ecological Society of America (ESA).
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  • 10
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