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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Asymmetric dihydroxylation (Sharpless-AD) ; Wittig olefination ; α-Bromo α,β-unsaturated esters ; Diastereoselective aprotic Michael domino reaction ; Tricyclo[3.2.1.02,7]octanes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The chiral α-bromo α,β-unsaturated esters 3 and 9 are prepared by asymmetric Sharpless dihydroxylation (AD) of 5 and from ester 7 and the chiral diols 8 by transacetalization, respectively. Both types of α-bromo α,β-unsaturated ester react with the kinetic lithium dienolates of enone 10 to give functionalized tricyclo[3.2.1.02,7]octanes 11. Esters 3 give one single diastereomer (de ≥ 95%), whereas mixtures of diastereomers (de 28 to 46%) are obtained with the esters 9.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0947-3440
    Keywords: Peterson olefination ; Horner Emmons olefination ; Diastereoselective aprotic Michael cascade reaction ; Tricyclo[3.2.1.02,7]octanes ; Bicyclo[3.2.1]octanes ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Starting from the easily accesible chiral aldehyde 2, we obtained enantiomerically pure (Z)- and (E)-α,-chloro-α,β-unsaturated esters 4c in good yields by olefination reactions. (Z)-and (E)-4c were allowed to react with the kinetically controlled generated lithium dienolate Li-7 to give the enantiomerically pure tricyclo[3.2.1.02,7]octanes 8 and 9, respectively. The „push-pull“ substituted cyclopropane moiety of 8 was opened to give solely bicyclo[3.2.1]octane 10.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Cytoarchitecture ; Dendritic organization ; Motoneurons ; Motor control ; Spinal cord ; Electric fish, Malapterurus electricus (Teleostei)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cytoarchitectural organization of the electromotor system of the electric catfish (Malapterurus electricus) was investigated in order to obtain insight into the neuronal reorganization accompanying the functional transition of a presumptive previous motor system to an electromotor system eliciting electric organ discharge. The electric catfish possesses two giant electromotoneurons situated within the rostral spinal cord. Intracellular dye injections have revealed the enormous extension of the dendritic tree of electromotoneurons. About 50 primary dendrites span the entire lateral funicle and intermediate grey matter, and reveal an extensive contralateral projection. The giant dendritic tree (1.2 mm in rostrocaudal direction) presumably receives inputs from all ascending and descending pathways of the spinal cord. Electromotoneurons and motoneurons receive the same type of fibre inputs, and electromotoneurons and interneurons are connected through common presynaptic elements. The innervation pattern of the electromotoneurons and spinal motoneurons is similar. Synaptic terminals with round synaptic vesicles often reveal chemical contacts and gap junctions. Furthermore, dendrites of the two electromotoneurons form juxtapositions (ephapses) with each other and also with spinal interneurons. Our results suggest that the two electromotoneurons are homologous to median (primary) spinal motoneurons and are the central structures of the electromotor system within the central nervous system of the electric catfish. A high capability of information processing can be attributed to the giant dendritic trees from functional considerations. This presumably enables the electromotoneurons to elicit an electric organ discharge in different behavioural contexts with a minimum of functional reorganization.
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