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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 29 (1982), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The aragonitic molluscs and lime-mud of the Pennsylvanian Buckhorn asphalt (Deese Group) of southern Oklahoma precipitated calcium carbonate in oxygen and carbon isotopic equilibrium with ambient sea-water. In addition, δ18O values indicate that the pelecypods precipitated their shells during the warmer months of the year. The coiled nautiloids probably precipitated their shells in the warm surface water and throughout the year. For the orthocone nautiloids, the δ18O values suggest that they precipitated their shells in deeper/cooler water.The low-Mg calcite brachiopods of the Mississippian Lake Valley Formation of New Mexico precipitated shells in oxygen and carbon isotopic equilibrium with ambient sea-water.The δ18O and δ13C values of the Buckhorn and Lake Valley faunas, in conjunction with other published results, suggest that Carboniferous sea-water was, on a average, depleted in δ18O by 1·5 ± 2‰, PDB, relative to Recent sea-water. However, the δ13C value of +2.6 ± 2‰, PDB, for average Carboniferous sea-water is similar to that of Recent ocean water.Early diagenetic alteration of metastable carbonates probably occurs in a meteoric-sea-water mixing zone. In this zone the oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of these components are increased by about 2-4‰, PDB over their marine composition.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Brachiopod shells are the most widely used geological archive for the reconstruction of the temperature and the oxygen isotope composition of Phanerozoic seawater. However, it is not conclusive whether brachiopods precipitate their shells in thermodynamic equilibrium. In this study, we investigated the potential impact of kinetic controls on the isotope composition of modern brachiopods by measuring the oxygen and clumped isotope compositions of their shells. Our results show that clumped and oxygen isotope compositions depart from thermodynamic equilibrium due to growth rate-induced kinetic effects. These departures are in line with incomplete hydration and hydroxylation of dissolved CO2. These findings imply that the determination of taxon-specific growth rates alongside clumped and bulk oxygen isotope analyses is essential to ensure accurate estimates of past ocean temperatures and seawater oxygen isotope compositions from brachiopods.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: Fossil carbonate skeletons of marine organisms are archives for understanding the development and evolution of palaeo-environments. However, the correct assessment of past environment dynamics is only possible when pristine skeletons and their biogenic characteristics are unequivocally distinguishable from diagenetically-alteredskeletal elements and non-biogenic features. In this study, we extend our work on diagenesis of biogenic aragonite (Casella et al. 2017) to the investigation of biogenic low-Mg calcite using brachiopod shells. We examined and compared microstructural characteristics inducedby laboratory-based alteration to structural features derived from diagenetic alteration in natural environments. We used four screening methods: cathodoluminescence (CL), cryogenic and conventional field emission-scanning electronmicroscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).We base our assessments of diagenetic alteration and overprint on measurements of, a) images of optical overprint signals, b) changes in calcite crystal orientation patterns, and c) crystal co-orientation statistics. According to the screening process, altered and overprinted samples define two groups. In Group 1 the entire shell is diagenetically overprinted, whereas in Group 2 the shell contains pristine as well as overprinted parts. In the case of Group 2 shells, alteration occurred either along the periphery of the shell including the primary layer or at the interior-facing surface of the fibrous/columnar layer. In addition, we observed an important mode of the overprinting process, namely the migration of diagenetic fluids through the endopunctae corroborated by mineral formation and overprinting in their immediate vicinity, while leaving shell parts between endopunctae in pristine condition. Luminescence (CL) and microstructural imaging (FE-SEM) screening give first-order observations of the degree of overprint as they cover macro-to micron scale alteration features. For a comprehensive assessment of diagenetic overprint these screening methods should be complemented by screening techniques such as EBSD and AFM. They visualise diagenetic changes at submicron and nanoscale levels depicting the replacement of pristine nanocomposite mesocrystal biocarbonate (NMB) by inorganic rhombohedral calcite (IRC). The integration of screening methods allows for the unequivocal identification of highly-detailed alteration features as well as an assessment of the degree of diagenetic alteration.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: Recent and fossil brachiopod shells have a long record as biomineral archives for (palaeo)climatic and (palaeo)environmental reconstructions, as they lack or exhibit limited vital effects in their calcite shell and generally are quite resistant to diagenetic alteration. Despite this, only few studies address the issue of identifying the best or optimal part of the shell for geochemical analyses. We investigated the link between ontogeny and geochemical signatures recorded in different parts of the shell. To reach this aim, we analysed the elemental (Ca, Mg, Sr, Na) and stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) compositions of five recent brachiopod species (Magellania venosa, Liothyrella uva, Aerothyris kerguelensis, Liothyrella neozelanica and Gryphus vitreus), spanning broad geographical and environmental ranges (Chile, Antarctica, Indian Ocean, New Zealand and Italy) and having different shell layer successions (two-layer and three-layer shells). We observed similar patterns in the ventral and dorsal valves of these two groups, but different ontogenetic trends by the two- and three-layer shells in their trace element and stable isotope records. Our investigation led us to conclude that the optimal region to sample for geochemical and isotope analyses is the middle part of the mid-section of the shell, avoiding the primary layer, posterior and anterior parts as well as the outermost part of the secondary layer in recent brachiopods. Also, the outermost and innermost rims of shells should be avoided due to diagenetic impacts on fossil brachiopods.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations seem to have been several times modern levels during much of the Palaeozoic era (543–248 million years ago), but decreased during the Carboniferous period to concentrations similar to that of today. Given that carbon dioxide is a ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0947-3440
    Keywords: Bridges, parallel o-phenylene and azo ; Dyotropic hydrogen transfer ; 1,5-Laticyclic conjugation ; [6 + 2] Photocycloaddition ; Photoelectron spectra ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Examples were synthesized of the four systems 1, 3, 5, and 7, in which rigid parallelo o-phenylene and azo bridges are connected to five- and/or six-membered carbocyclic moities. The o-phenylene bridge was introduced by two routes: (A) starting from precursors already containing that bridge (24, 29) and assembling the azo bridge in consecutive steps (→ 3a, 3b, 5c, 5d, 5e, 5f, 5g); (B) starting from the systems with parallel C=C/N=N bridges (9a, 11a, 13a, 42) and completing the dihydro-o-phenylene ring by tetrachlorothiopene dioxide. Dyotropic hydrogen transfer of the azo bridge enhances the dehydrogenation of the intermediate dihydro-o-phenylene derivatives (22, 3cH2, 25). This mechanism was proved by the domino hydrogen transfer 44 → 45 → 5h. Via route B, systems 1a, 1b, 3c, 3d, 5a, 5b, 5h, and 43 were obtained. In sharp contrast to the smooth [2 + 2] photocycloaddition of systems 9, 11, 13, and 15 (C=C/N=N bridges), [6 + 2] photocycloaddition occurs only with systems 1 and (5C/5N) and 3 (6C/5N) but not with systems 5 (5C/6N) and 7 (6C/6N). These differences are not caused by slightly varying distances of the two bridges (X-ray data) but by the higher n_ ionization energy of the azo group incorporated into a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene (DBH) instead of a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) moiety, the hypsochromicity of the corresponding DBH n-π* state and the higher ground-state energy of DBH compared to DBO.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-02-12
    Description: The Permian-Triassic mass extinction represents the most severe environmental crisis in Earth’s history, which dictated the course for evolution of life until today. Volcanism from Siberian traps played a significant role involving a substantial input of relatively light carbon into the atmosphere leading to a combination of global warming by ~6°C, sporadic anoxia or euxinia, and ocean acidification. However, its detailed manifestation and environmental impact is yet to be fully understood. This lack of knowledge also extends to a better quantification of emitted and sequestered carbon budgets (cf. Gutjahr et al., 2017).
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The assessment of diagenetic overprint on microstructural and geochemical data gained from fossil archives is of fundamental importance for understanding palaeoenvironments. The correct reconstruction of past environmental dynamics is only possible when pristine skeletons are unequivocally distinguished from altered skeletal elements. Our previous studies show (i) that replacement of biogenic carbonate by inorganic calcite occurs via an interface-coupled dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism. (ii) A comprehensive understanding of alteration of the biogenic skeleton is only given when structural changes are assessed on both, the micrometre as well as on the nanometre scale. In the present contribution we investigate experimental hydrothermal alteration of six different modern biogenic carbonate materials to (i) assess their potential for withstanding diagenetic overprint and to (ii) find characteristics for the preservation of their microstructure in the fossil record. Experiments were performed at 175°C with a 100 mM NaCl + 10 mM MgCl2 alteration solution and lasted for up to 35 days. For each type of microstructure we (i) examine the evolution of biogenic carbonate replacement by inorganic calcite, (ii) highlight different stages of inorganic carbonate formation, (iii) explore microstructural changes at different degrees of alteration, and (iv) perform a statistical evaluation of microstructural data to highlight changes in crystallite size between the pristine and the altered skeletons. We find that alteration from biogenic aragonite to inorganic calcite proceeds along pathways where the fluid enters the material. It is fastest in hard tissues with an existing primary porosity and a biopolymer fabric within the skeleton that consists of a network of fibrils. The slowest alteration kinetics occurs when biogenic nacreous aragonite is replaced by inorganic calcite, irrespective of the mode of assembly of nacre tablets. For all investigated biogenic carbonates we distinguish the following intermediate stages of alteration: (i) decomposition of biopolymers and the associated formation of secondary porosity, (ii) homoepitactic overgrowth with preservation of the original phase leading to amalgamation of neighbouring mineral units (i.e. recrystallization by grain growth eliminating grain boundaries), (iii) deletion of the original microstructure, however, at first, under retention of the original mineralogical phase, and (iv) replacement of both, the pristine microstructure and original phase with the newly formed abiogenic product. At the alteration front we find between newly formed calcite and reworked biogenic aragonite the formation of metastable Mg-rich carbonates with a calcite-type structure and compositions ranging from dolomitic to about 80mol % magnesite. This high-Mg calcite seam shifts with the alteration front when the latter is displaced within the unaltered biogenic aragonite. For all investigated biocarbonate hard tissues we observe the destruction of the microstructure first, and, in a second step, the replacement of the original with the newly formed phase.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Shells of brachiopods are excellent archives for environmental reconstructions in the recent and distant past as their microstructure and geochemistry respond to climate and environmental forcings. We studied the morphology and size of the basic structural unit, the secondary layer fibre, of the shells of several extant brachiopod taxa to derive a model correlating microstructural patterns to environmental conditions. Twenty-one adult specimens of six recent brachiopod species adapted to different environmental conditions, from Antarctica, to New Zealand, to the Mediterranean Sea, were chosen for microstructural analysis using SEM, TEM and EBSD. We conclude that: 1) there is no significant difference in the shape and size of the fibres between ventral and dorsal valves, 2) there is an ontogenetic trend in the shape and size of the fibres, as they become larger, wider, and flatter with increasing age. This indicates that the fibrous layer produced in the later stages of growth, which is recommended by the literature to be the best material for geochemical analyses, has a different morphostructure and probably a lower organic content than that produced earlier in life. In two species of the same genus living in seawater with different temperature and carbonate saturation state, a relationship emerged between the microstructure and environmental conditions. Fibres of the polar Liothyrella uva tend to be smaller, rounder and less convex than those of the temperate Liothyrella neozelanica, suggesting a relationship between microstructural size, shell organic matter content, ambient seawater temperature and calcite saturation state.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The present data in brief article provides additional data and information to our research article “Micro- and nanostructures reflect the degree of diagenetic alteration in modern and fossil brachiopod shell calcite: a multi-analytical screening approach (CL, FE-SEM, AFM, EBSD)” [1] (Casella et al.). We present fibre morphology, nano- and microstructure, as well as calcite crystal orientations and textures found in pristine, experimentally altered (hydrothermal and thermal), and diagenetically overprinted brachiopod shells. Combination of the screening tools AFM, FE-SEM, and EBSD allows to observe a significant change in microstructural and textural features with an increasing degree of laboratory-based and naturally occurring diagenetic alteration. Amalgamation of neighbouring fibres was observed on the micrometre scale level, whereas progressive decomposition of biopolymers in the shells and fusion of nanoparticulate calcite crystals was detected on the nanometre scale. The presented data in this article and the study described in [1] allows for qualitative information on the degree of diagenetic alteration of fossil archives used for palaeoclimate reconstruction.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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