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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Minerva 5 (1966), S. 3-19 
    ISSN: 1573-1871
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Education , Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-174X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Dordrecht : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    Journal of Business Ethics. 11:12 (1992:Dec.) 921 
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-26
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-02-29
    Description: Abstract The {GEOTRACES} Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international {GEOTRACES} programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) as well as classical hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing a strongly inter-linked on-line atlas including more than 300 section plots and 90 animated 3D scenes. The {IDP2014} covers the Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian oceans, exhibiting highest data density in the Atlantic. The {TEI} data in the {IDP2014} are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at cross-over stations. The digital data are provided in several formats, including {ASCII} spreadsheet, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. In addition to the actual data values the {IDP2014} also contains data quality flags and 1-� data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked to the data in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the {IDP2014} data providing section plots and a new kind of animated 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes allow for viewing of data from many cruises at the same time, thereby providing quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. In addition, the 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of observed tracer plumes, as well as for making inferences about controlling processes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution April, 1976
    Description: The marine geochemical cycles of iron, copper, nickel, and cadmium were studied in order to provide a basis for oceanographic models for trace metals. Copper, nickel, and cadmium can be determined in a 100 ml seawater sample using cobalt pyrrolidine dithioacarbamate chelate coprecipitation and graphite atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentration ranges likely to be encountered and estimated (1δ) analytical precisions are copper, 1 to 6 nanomole/kg (±0.1); nickel, 3 to 12 nanomole/kg (±0.3); and cadmium, 0. 0 to 1.1 nanomole/kg (±0.1). The technique may be applied to freshwater samples with slight modification. A survey of several east coast U. S. estuaries established that an iron removal process occurs commonly when rivers mix with seawater. Laboratory mixing experiments using water from the Merrimack River (Mass.) and the Mullica River (New Jersey) demonstrated that rapid iron precipitation occurs as negatively-charged iron-organic colloids react with seawater cations and coagulate. This phenomenom was modeled using a synthetic, organic-stabilized colloidal suspension of goethite. The generality of the mechanism suggests that the world-average net river input of iron to the oceans is less than 1 μmole/kg of river water, an order of magnitude below previous estimates. Profiles of cadmium were obtained for 3 GEOSECS stations in the Pacific Ocean. Cadmium shows a consistent linear correlation with phosphate which demonstrates that cadmium is regenerated in a shallow cycle within the water column. The water column correlation is consistent with data on cadmium in marine organisms. Cadmium is enriched in upwelling regions which explains reports of cadmium enrichment in plankton from the Baja California upwelling region. Copper and nickel measurements have been made for three profiles from the Pacific Ocean. Observed copper concentrations range from 1 to 6 nanomole/kg; nickel varies from 3 to 12 nanomole/kg. Copper and nickel are removed from surface waters by uptake into organisms. As noted previously, nickel is regenerated partially in a shallow cycle (like P) and also in a deep cycle (like Ba). Copper is regenerated from biological debris at the bottom but is also scavenged from the mid and deep water column by an undetermined mechanism. The scavenging residence time is 1400 years. An estimate for the continental input of Ni, 7 nanomole/kg of river water, and Cu, 18 nanomole/kg of river water, was derived from measurements in the Amazon estuary. The oceanic residence times for nickel and copper are about 10,000 years. Evidence available on the uptake laws for trace metals by plankton suggests that a consistent relationship between the uptake law and the depth of regeneration may apply.
    Description: Money in support of this research came at various times from the ONR, MIT UROP office, and a grant from the Doherty Foundation.
    Keywords: Geochemistry ; Chemical oceanography ; Trace elements in water ; Chain (Ship : 1958-) Cruise CH115
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Thesis
    Format: 4112508 bytes
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 20 (2005): PA2003, doi:10.1029/2004PA001074.
    Description: Stable isotope, trace metal, alkenone paleothermometry, and radiocarbon methods have been applied to sediment cores in the western subpolar North Atlantic between Hudson Strait and Cape Hatteras to reveal the history of climate in that region over the past ∼11 kyr. We focus on cores from the Laurentian Fan, which is known to have rapid and continuous accumulation of hemipelagic sediment. Although results among our various proxy data are not always in agreement, the weight of the evidence (alkenone sea surface temperature (SST), δ18O and abundance of Globigerinoides ruber) indicates a continual cooling of surface waters over Laurentian Fan, from about 18°C in the early Holocene to about 8°C today. Alternatively, Mg/Ca data on planktonic foraminifera indicate no systematic change in Holocene SST. The inferred long-term decrease in SST was probably driven by decreasing seasonality of Northern Hemisphere insolation. Two series of proxy data show the gradual cooling was interrupted by a two-step cold pulse that began 8500 years ago, and lasted about 700 years. Although this event is associated with the final deglaciation of Hudson Bay, there is no δ18O minimum anywhere in the Labrador Sea, yet there is some evidence for it as far south as Cape Hatteras. Finally, although the 8200 year B.P. event has been implicated in decreasing North Atlantic ventilation, and hence widespread temperature depression on land and at sea, we find inconsistent evidence for a change at that time in deep ocean nutrient content at ∼4 km water depth.
    Description: Funding for JPS was from the NOAA Climate and Global Change Program (NA 16GP2679), NSF-Earth System History (0116940), the Jeptha H. and Emily V. Wade Award for Research, and a Henry L. and Grace Doherty Professorship. LDK and YR were funded by NSF grant OCE-0117149.
    Keywords: Lake Agassiz ; 8200 year event ; Meltwater pulse
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 8
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    American Geophysical Union
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18 (2004): GB1002, doi:10.1029/2003GB002061.
    Description: We describe a model of the ocean transport and biogeochemical cycling of iron and the subsequent control on export production and macronutrient distributions. Ocean transport of phosphorus and iron are represented by a highly idealized six-box ocean model. Export production is parameterized simply; it is limited by light, phosphate, and iron availability in the surface ocean. We prescribe the regional variations in aeolian deposition of iron and examine three parameterizations of iron cycling in the deep ocean: (1) net scavenging onto particles, the simplest model; (2) scavenging and desorption of iron to and from particles, analogous to thorium; and (3) complexation. Provided that some unknown parameter values can be set appropriately, all three biogeochemical models are capable of reproducing the broad features of the iron distribution observed in the modern ocean and explicitly lead to regions of elevated surface phosphate, particularly in the Southern Ocean. We compare the sensitivity of Southern Ocean surface macronutrient concentration to increased aeolian dust supply for each parameterization. Both scavenging-based representations respond to increasing dust supply with a drawdown of surface phosphate in an almost linear relationship. The complexation parameterization, however, asymptotes toward a limited drawdown of phosphate under the assumption that ligand production does not respond to increased dust flux. In the scavenging based models, deep water iron concentrations and, therefore, upwelled iron continually increase with greater dust supply. In contrast, the availability of complexing ligand provides an upper limit for the deep water iron concentration in the latter model.
    Description: M. J. F. is grateful for funding from NOAA (NA16GP2988) and NSSF (OCE-336839). P. P. is grateful to the MIT Martin Fellowship and NASA Earth System Science Fellowship (NGT5- 30362) for funding.
    Keywords: Modeling ; Ocean iron cycle
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2014. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of National Academy of Sciences for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of American 111 (2014): 15328–15331, doi:10.1073/pnas.1417370111
    Description: Humans have injected lead (Pb) massively into the earth surface environment in a temporally and spatially evolving pattern. A significant fraction is transported by the atmosphere into the surface ocean where we can observe its transport by ocean currents and sinking particles. This study of the Indian Ocean documents high Pb concentrations in the northern and tropical surface waters, and extremely low Pb levels in the deep water. North of 20°S, dissolved Pb concentrations decrease from 42-82 pmol/Kg in surface waters to 1.5-3.3 pmol/Kg in deep waters. South of 20°S, surface water Pb concentrations decrease from 21 pmol/Kg at 31°S to 7 pmol/Kg at 62°S. This surface Pb concentration gradient reflects a southward decrease in anthropogenic Pb emissions. The upper waters of the north and central Indian Ocean have high Pb concentrations resulting from recent regional rapid industrialization and a late phase-out of leaded gasoline, and these concentrations are now higher than currently seen in the central North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. The Antarctic sector of the Indian Ocean shows very low concentrations due to limited regional anthropogenic Pb emissions, high scavenging rates, and rapid vertical mixing, but Pb still occurs at higher levels than would have existed centuries ago. Penetration of Pb into the northern and central Indian Ocean thermocline waters is minimized by limited ventilation. Pb concentrations in the deep Indian Ocean are comparable to the other oceans at the same latitude, and deep waters of the central Indian Ocean match the lowest observed oceanic Pb concentrations.
    Description: Y. Echegoyen thanks the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for a postdoctoral MEC-Fulbright grant. MIT laboratory expenses were supported by a grant from the Singapore National Research Foundation to the SMART-CENSAM project. Sample collection was supported by grants from the Steel Foundation for Environmental Protection Technology and from Grant-in-Aid of Scientific Research, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.
    Keywords: Indian Ocean ; Pb content ; Anthropogenic emissions
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2015. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 169 (2015): 1-16, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2015.07.019.
    Description: The role of iron as a limiting micronutrient motivates an effort to understand the supply and removal of lithogenic trace metals in the ocean. The long-lived thorium isotopes (232 Th and 230 Th) in seawater can be used to quantify the input of lithogenic metals attributable to the partial dissolution of aerosol dust. Thus, Th can help in disentangling the Fe cycle by providing an estimate of its ultimate supply and turnover rate. Here we present time-series (1994-2014) data on thorium isotopes and iron concentrations in seawater from the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA. By comparing Th-based dissolved Fe fluxes with measured dissolved Fe inventories, we derive Fe residence times of 6-12 months for the surface ocean. Therefore, Fe inventories in the surface ocean are sensitive to seasonal changes in dust input. Ultrafiltration results further reveal that Th has a much lower colloidal content than Fe does, despite a common source. On this basis, we suggest Fe colloids may be predominantly organic in composition, at least at Station ALOHA. In the deep ocean (〉2 km), Fe approaches a solubility limit while Th, surprisingly, is continually leached from lithogenic particles. This distinction has implications for the relevance of Fe ligand availability in the deep ocean, but also suggests Th is not a good tracer for Fe in deep waters. While uncovering divergent behavior of these elements in the water column, this study finds that dissolved Th flux is a suitable proxy for the supply of Fe from dust in the remote surface ocean.
    Description: We acknowledge funding from the W.O. Crosby Postdoctoral Fellowship to CTH and the National Science Foundation through C-MORE, NSF-OIA EF-0424599 to EAB, and NSF-DMR Author Posting.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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    Format: application/vnd.ms-excel
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