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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-26
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography
    In:  Limnology and Oceanography, 59 (2). pp. 385-399.
    Publication Date: 2017-05-02
    Description: We report isotope dilution analyses of dissolved cadmium (Cd) and electrochemical Cd speciation measurements in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Bioavailable inorganic Cd is 〉 100 times higher in near-surface waters south of the Polar Front compared to the Subantarctic Zone because of upwelling and reduced complexation by organic Cd ligands. To trace local changes in the relation between Cd and P, we examine the deviations from a linear deep-water Cd vs. P relation (Cd*), and find that changes in Cd* coincide with the position of frontal systems and covary with primary productivity and total dissolved Mn and Fe concentrations. These covariations agree with potential local changes in phytoplankton Cd uptake rates, resulting from differences in the availability of Cd, Zn, Mn, and Fe. A band of negative Cd* values is associated with formation of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). In contrast to SAMW, which may export low Cd : P ratios from the Southern Ocean, the Cd : P ratios in AAIW increase by mixing with underlying Upper Circumpolar Deep Water before being exported from the Southern Ocean. Deep waters show constant Cd : P ratios, and both elements behave conservatively with end-member mixing between deep waters of the Weddell Gyre, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and inflowing North Atlantic Deep Water. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that the kink in the global Cd vs. P relation is largely caused by high Cd : P uptake ratios in the trace-nutrient–limited Southern Ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-12-08
    Description: The spatial distribution, biogeochemical cycle and external sources of dissolved cobalt (DCo) were investigated in the southeastern Atlantic and the Southern Ocean between 33°58′S and 57°33′S along the Greenwich Meridian during the austral summer 2008 in the framework of the International Polar Year. DCo concentrations were measured by flow-injection analysis and chemiluminescence detection in filtered (0.2 μm), acidified and UV-digested samples at 12 deep stations in order to resolve the several biogeochemical provinces of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and to assess the vertical and frontal structures in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. We measured DCo ranging from 5.73 ± 1.15 pM to 72.9 ± 4.51 pM. The distribution of DCo was nutrient-like in surface waters of the subtropical domain with low concentrations in the euphotic layer due to biological uptake. The biological utilization of dissolved cobalt was proportional to that of phosphate in the subtropical domain with a DCo:HPO42− depletion ratio of ~ 44 μM M−1. In deeper waters the distribution indicated remineralization of DCo and inputs from the margins of South Africa with lateral advection of enriched intermediate and deep waters to the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. In contrast the vertical distribution of DCo changed southward, from a nutrient-like distribution in the subtropical domain to scavenged-type behavior in the domain of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and conservative distribution in the Weddell Gyre. There the cycle of DCo featured low biological removal by Antarctic diatoms with input to surface waters by snow, removal in oxygenated surface waters, and dissolution and stabilization in the low-oxygenated Upper Circumpolar Deep Waters. DCo distributions and physical hydro-dynamics features also suggest inputs from the Drake Passage and the southwestern Atlantic to the 0° meridian along the eastward flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Bottom enrichment of DCo in the Antarctic Bottom Waters was also evident, together with increasing water-mass pathway and aging, possibly due to sediment resuspension and/or mixing with North Atlantic Deep waters in the Cape Basin. Overall atmospheric input of soluble Co by dry aerosols to the surface waters was low but higher in the ACC domain than in the northern part of the section. At the highest latitudes, it is possible that snowfall could be a source of DCo to surface waters. Tentative budgets for DCo in the mixed layer of the subtropical and the ACC domains have been constructed for each biogeochemical region encountered during the cruise. The estimated DCo uptake flux was found to be the dominant cobalt flux along the section. This flux decreases southward, which is consistent with the observations that DCo shows a southward transition from nutrient-like towards conservative distribution in the mixed layer.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Description: Vertical distributions of iron and iron binding ligands were determined in 2 size classes (dissolved 〈 0.2 μm, soluble 〈 200 kDa, e.g., ~ 0.03 μm) in the Southern Ocean. Colloidal iron and complexing capacity (〉 200 kDa–〈 0.2 μm) were inferred as the difference between the dissolved and soluble fractions. Dissolved iron and ligands exist primarily in the soluble size range in the surface waters, although iron-complexing colloids still represent a significant portion of the dissolved pool and this fraction increases markedly with depth. This work presents evidence for the colloidal nature of a significant portion (37–51% on average) of the ‘dissolved’ organic Fe pool in these oceanic waters. From the data it was not possible to discern whether iron colloids exist as discrete organic complexes and/or inorganic amorphous colloids. Iron-complexing colloids are the most saturated with iron at the thermodynamic equilibrium, whereas soluble organic ligands occur in larger excess compared to soluble iron. It suggests that the exchangeable fraction for iron uptake through dissociation of Fe complexes likely occurs in the soluble fraction, and that soluble ligands have the potential to buffer iron inputs to surface waters whereas iron colloids may aggregate and settle. Expectations based on Fe diffusion rates, distributions and the stability of the soluble iron complexes and iron colloids also suggest that the weaker soluble Fe complexes may be more bio-available, while the strongest colloids may be a major route for iron removal from oceanic waters. Investigations of the size classes of the dissolved organic iron thus can significantly increase our understanding of the oceanic iron cycle.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-02-29
    Description: Abstract The {GEOTRACES} Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international {GEOTRACES} programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) as well as classical hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing a strongly inter-linked on-line atlas including more than 300 section plots and 90 animated 3D scenes. The {IDP2014} covers the Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian oceans, exhibiting highest data density in the Atlantic. The {TEI} data in the {IDP2014} are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at cross-over stations. The digital data are provided in several formats, including {ASCII} spreadsheet, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. In addition to the actual data values the {IDP2014} also contains data quality flags and 1-� data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked to the data in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the {IDP2014} data providing section plots and a new kind of animated 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes allow for viewing of data from many cruises at the same time, thereby providing quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. In addition, the 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of observed tracer plumes, as well as for making inferences about controlling processes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-13
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (2005): C09S16, doi:10.1029/2004JC002601.
    Description: Comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10–30 μm), medium (30–60 μm), and large (〉60 μm) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of “dissolved” Fe (filtrate 〈 0.2 μm) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the “dissolved” pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ∼ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of carbon into deeper waters is difficult to assess and is until now firmly proven and quite modest in only two experiments.
    Description: This research was supported by the European Union through programs CARUSO (1998– 2001), IRONAGES (1999 –2003), and COMET (2000–2003); the Netherlands- Bremen Oceanography program NEBROC-1; and the Netherlands Organization for Research NWO through the Netherlands Antarctic Program project FePath. Both the U.S. National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy provided significant support for the SOFeX program. M.R.L. acknowledges the U.S. National Science Foundation for support of IronEx and SOFeX projects and related studies (OCE-9912230, -9911765, and -0322074).
    Keywords: Iron ; Fertilization ; Phytoplankton
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Chemical Geology 493 (2018): 210-223, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.05.040.
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) through grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation, including grants OCE-0608600, OCE-0938349, OCE-1243377, and OCE-1546580. Financial support was also provided by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), the Ministry of Earth Science of India, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, l'Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées Toulouse, the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the Kiel Excellence Cluster The Future Ocean, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, The University of Tokyo, The University of British Columbia, The Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, and the Alfred Wegener Institute.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Trace elements ; Isotopes ; Electronic atlas ; IDP2017
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 28 (2014): 1387–1412, doi:10.1002/2014GB004903.
    Description: Dissolved cobalt (DCo; 〈0.2 µm; 14 to 93 pM) and the apparent particulate cobalt (PCo; 〉0.2 µm; 〈1 to 15 pM) were determined in the upper water column (〈1000 m) of the western Atlantic Ocean along the GEOTRACES-A02 section (64°N to 50°S). The lowest DCo concentrations, typical of a nutrient-type distribution were observed in surface waters of the subtropical domains. Strong linear relationships between DCo and phosphate (P) as well as meridional gradients of decreasing DCo from high latitudes were characterized and both linked to the Co biological requirement. External sources such as the Amazon and the atmospheric deposition were found to contribute significantly (〉10%) to the DCo stock of the mixed layer in the equatorial and north subtropical domains. Biotic and abiotic processes as well as the physical terms involved in the biogeochemical cycle of Co were defined and estimated. This allowed establishing the first global budget of DCo for the upper 100 m in the western Atlantic. The biological DCo uptake flux was the dominant sink along the section, as reflected by the overall nutrient-type behavior of DCo. The regeneration varied widely within the different biogeochemical domains, accounting for 10% of the DCo-uptake rate in the subarctic gyre and for up to 85% in southern subtropical domain. These findings demonstrated that the regeneration is likely the prevailing source of DCo in the surface waters of the western Atlantic, except in the subpolar domains where physically driven sources can sustain the DCo biological requirement.
    Description: This investigation was supported by the GEOTRACES-GEOSECS revisited in the West Atlantic project coordinated by M. Boye and funded by the French LEFE-CYBER National Program of the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU). We also acknowledge the European COST-Action ES801 for funding a short-term Scientific Mission to G. Dulaquais to join the last cruise of the GEOTRACES-A02 section. The Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO) and the Région Bretagne (ARED) are supporting the PhD fellowship of G. Dulaquais. P.M. was supported in part by a Gledden Visiting Fellowship awarded by the Institute of Advanced Studies at The University of Western Australia.
    Description: 2015-06-05
    Keywords: Cobalt ; Biogeochemistry ; Atlantic Ocean ; Chemical Oceanography ; GEOTRACES
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 177 (2015): 1-8, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2015.04.005.
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) as well as classical hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing a strongly inter-linked on-line atlas including more than 300 section plots and 90 animated 3D scenes. The IDP2014 covers the Atlantic, Arctic, and Indian oceans, exhibiting highest data density in the Atlantic. The TEI data in the IDP2014 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at cross-over stations. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII spreadsheet, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. In addition to the actual data values the IDP2014 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked to the data in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2014 data providing section plots and a new kind of animated 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes allow for viewing of data from many cruises at the same time, thereby providing quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. In addition, the 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of observed tracer plumes, as well as for making inferences about controlling processes.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) through grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation, including grants OCE-0608600, OCE-0938349, and OCE-1243377. Financial support was also provided by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, the Ministry of Earth Science of India, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, l'Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées Toulouse, the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the Kiel Excellence Cluster The Future Ocean, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, The University of Tokyo, The University of British Columbia, The Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, and the Alfred Wegener Institute.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Trace elements ; Isotopes ; Electronic atlas
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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