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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 399 (1999), S. 27-27 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] It is generally assumed that the first fossil appearance of a group of organisms corresponds to its evolutionary origin. But we have molecular evidence that extant members of the most abundant microfossil-forming group, the Foraminifera, include ‘naked’ amoeboid species, indicating ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 403 (2000), S. 77-80 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] It is generally agreed that the origin and initial diversification of Eucarya occurred in the late Archaean or Proterozoic Eons when atmospheric oxygen levels were low and the risk of DNA damage due to ultraviolet radiation was high. Because deep water provides refuge against ultraviolet ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 305-314 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell surface motility ; axopodia ; reticulopodia ; Allogromia ; Echinosphaerium (Actinosphaerium) nucleofilum ; surf-riding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mechanism responsible for the energy-dependent movement of membrane components (ie, surface motility) is unknown. Recently a potentially unifying model, termed “surf-riding” [Hewitt, 1979] or “surf-boarding” [Berlin and Oliver, 1982], has been proposed to explain surface motility. Using phase-contrast light microscopy and membrane surface markers (polystyrene microspheres), we have tested the surf-riding/surf-boarding hypothesis on two protozoan systems: the axopodia of the heliozoan Echinosphaerium nucleofilum and the reticulopodial networks of the allogromiid foraminiferans Allogromia laticollaris and Allogromia sp, strain NF. Our evidence indicates that surface motility, as displayed by these organisms, does not occur by a surf-riding/surf-boarding mechanism. Previouś observations on surface motility associated with the Chlamydomonas flagellum indicate that this system is also incompatible with the surf-boarding/surf-riding hypothesis.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 10 (1988), S. 126-136 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; Allogromia ; intracellular transport ; surface motility ; actin ; morphogenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Microtubules are the major cytoskeletal component of foraminiferan reticulopodia. Video-enhanced differential interference contrast light microscopy has demonstrated that the microtubules serve as the intracellular tracks along which rapid bidirectional organelle transport and cell surface motility occurs. Microtubules appear to move, both axially and laterally within the pseudopodial cytoplasm, and these microtubule translocations appear to drive the various reticulopodial movements. F-actin is localized to discrete filament plaques form at sites of pseudopod-substrate adhesion. Correlative immunofluorescence and electron microscopy reveals a structural interaction between microtubules and the actin-containing filament plaques. Our recent data on reticulopodial motility are discussed in an historical context, and a model for foram motility, based on motile microtubules, is presented.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: polycentric chromosome ; light microscopy ; electron microscopy ; high-pressure freezing ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mitosis in the hemipteran Agallia constricta (leafhopper) cell line AC-20 was examined by light microscopy of living and fixed cells. During early prometaphase the numerous small (0.30-3.0-μm) chromosomes appear as discrete units that lack a primary constriction. However, by late prometaphase the chromosomes are tightly packed at the spindle equator and are no longer clearly resolvable as individuals. When viewed from the side the metaphase chromatin appears as a 2-3-μm wide band that spans the width of the spindle; when viewed from the pole it appears as a fenestrated disk. The metaphase chromatin splits at anaphase into two sister chromatin plates, each of which exhibits holokinetic poleward movement, i.e., all parts of each plate move as a single unit with the same velocity. In many early-to-mid anaphase cells the separating sister plates are connected by chromatin-containing bridges that break as anaphase progresses. Ultrastructural analyses of serial thick and thin sections from cells fixed by conventional, OsO4/KFeCN, or high pressure rapid freezing methods, reveal that by metaphase all of the chromosomes are interconnected to form a large, irregularly shaped fenestrated disk of chromatin. Similar analyses reveal that adjacent chromatids remain interconnected throughout anaphase. Each disk of metaphase and anaphase chromatin contains numerous kinetochores recessed within its polefacing surface. Kinetochores consist of a fine, faintly staining fibrillar material arranged along the chromatin surface as thin (0.1-0.3 μm dia.) rods varying considerably (0.15-2.3 μm) in length. From these observations we conclude that the polycentric metaphase chromatin of A. constricta, and its holokinetic behavior during anaphase, arises from the aggregation or cohesion of smaller prometaphase chromosomes, each of which contains a single, diffuse kinetochore.
    Additional Material: 22 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Allogromia ; reticulopods ; cytoskeleton ; microtubules ; actin ; saltatory transport ; cell shape ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cytoskeletal inhibitors were used as probes to test the involvement of microtubules and actin microfilaments in the development, motility, and shape maintenance of the pseudopodial networks (i e, reticulopodia) of the foraminifers Allogromia sp strain NF and Allogromia laticcllaris. Agents that disassemble cytoplasmic microtubules (cold, colchicine, and nocodazole) arrest all movement but have variable effects on reticulopodial shape. Electron microscopy reveals a granulofibrillar matrix but few, if any, microtubules in these motility-arrested reticulopods. Allogromiids treated with cytochalasin B or D lose substrate adhesion and undergo dramatic changes in shape and motile behavior, highlighted by the coalescence of reticulopodial cytoplasm into irregularly shaped bodies with chaotic motility. Serial semithick sections of such preparations, viewed by high-voltage electron microscopy, document a striking rearrangement of microtubules within these cytochalasin-induced bodies. All aspects of cytochalasin-altered motility are completely inhibited by colchicine. Actin is present in reticulopodia, as determined by staining with rhodamine-phalloidin; this staining is not observed in cytochalasin-treated organisms. These data provide compelling evidence that microtubules are required for reticulopodial motility. An actin-based cytoskeleton is thought to play a role in maintaining shape, mediating pseudopod/substrate adhesion, and coordinating the various microtubule-dependent processes.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Allogromia ; cytoplasmic transport ; microtubules ; reticulopod withdrawal ; tubulin-containing paracrystal ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Bundles of microtubules (MTs) are readily visualized in vivo by videomicroscopy in highly flattened reticulopodia of the foraminiferan protozoan Allogromia sp. strain NF. In this report we use videomicroscopy, immunocytochemistry, and high-voltage electron microscopy to characterize the dynamic changes that occur in this extensive MT cytoskeleton, and in the associated cytoplasmic transport, during induced withdrawal and subsequent reextension of reticulopodia. Within seconds after application of the withdrawal stimulus (seawater substitute made hypertonic with MgCl2) intracellular bidirectional transport along linear MT-containing fibrils ceases and is replaced by an inward, constant-velocity flow of cytoplasm along the fibrils. As withdrawal continues, most fibrils become wavy and coalesce to form phase-dense pools. These wavy fibrils and phase-dense pools contain a paracrystalline material and few if any MTs. Same-section correlative immunofluorescence and high-voltage electron microscopy reveal that the paracrystalline material contains tubulin. During recovery linear fibrils (MTs) rapidly extend from the phase-dense pools (paracrystals), which concurrently shrink in size, thus reestablishing normal network morphology and motility. We conclude that the MT cytoskeleton in Allogromia reticulopodia is transfonned during withdrawal into a tubulin-containing paracrystal, which serves as a temporary reservoir of MT protein and an initiation site for MT regrowth.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Ultrastructure ; Semithick sections ; Three-dimensional ; Serial sections ; Stereomicroscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Many transmission electron microscopes are available which can be used to examine biological material in 0.25-0.50-μm-thick sections. When compared to the traditional thin section, these “semithick” sections possess a number of inherent advantages: They can be screened for content with the phase contrast light microscope, they facilitate many types of studies requiring an analysis of serial sections, and they are frequently the optimum thickness for stereomicroscopy. Structures such as microtubule-associated components, as well as structural relationships between cellular constituents, may also be clearly visible in semithick sections which are not visible, or go unnoticed, in thin sections. Together these advantages enable an investigator to obtain a more complete three-dimensional picture of a cell or cell component in a significantly (i.e., up to 90%) shorter period of time than would be required if thin sections were used. Semithick sections may, therefore, make a study feasible which is not approachable, or which is approachable only with great difficulty, by conventional thin sectioning techniques.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: . Epifluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorimetry were investigated as possible non-terminal methods to distinguish live from dead foraminifera. Seven fluorogenic probes (diacetates of fluorescein [FDA], carboxyfluorescein, dichlorofluorescein, and carboxyeosin; AM-esters of biscarboxyethylcarboxyfluorescein [BCECF-AM], calcein, and calcein blue) were tested on Allogromia laticollaris. The probes that consistently produced the brightest fluorescence signals (BCECF-AM and FDA) were judged non-toxic to Allogromia, on the basis of short-term pseudopodial deployment and long-term reproduction assays. Once protocols were established, these two probes were tested on 13 additional benthic foraminiferal species. We found that BCECF-AM is the most suitable probe for direct epifluorescence microscopy of metabolically active foraminifera, especially tectinous and transparent calcareous species. Using spectrofluorimetry, FDA showed promise for opaque species because fluorescence is detected in the incubation media after its release from the cell. However, both approaches could only be used with confidence in light of appropriate controls established for each species examined.
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