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  • 1
    Call number: MOP Per 555(12)
    In: Contributions from the Cloud Physics Group
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: VI, 144 S.
    Series Statement: Contributions from the Cloud Physics Group : Research report 12
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: MOP Per 555(13)
    In: Contributions from the Cloud Physics Group
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: VI, 417 S.
    Series Statement: Contributions from the Cloud Physics Group : Reserach report 13
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A comparison is made between three climatologies of backscatter measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere at CO2 wavelengths. These were obtained from several locations using ground-based and airborne lidar systems. All three measurement sets show similar features, specifically, a high frequency of occurrence of low backscatter over a limited range of values in the middle and upper atmosphere (the 'background mode'). This background mode is important for the design and performance simulation of the prospective satellite sensors that rely on atmospheric aerosols as scattering targets.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: NASA conducted the GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) Survey Mission over the near coastal and remote Pacific Ocean during 6 to 30 Nov. 1989 (GLOBE 1) and 13 May to 5 Jun. 1990 (GLOBE 2). These missions studied the optical, physical, and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Particular emphasis was given to the magnitude and spatial variability of aerosol backscatter coefficients at mid-infrared wavelengths, and to the remote middle and upper troposphere, where these aerosol properties are poorly understood. Survey instruments were selected to provide either direct beta measurements at the key wavelengths, empirical links with long term or global scale aerosol climatologies, or aerosol microphysics data required to model any of these quantities. The survey deployment included both long distance 6 to 8 hour transit flights and detailed 4 to 6 hour local flights. Several general features were observed from preliminary Survey data analyses. Validation and intercomparison results have shown good agreement, usually better than a factor of two. Atmospheric aerosols frequently exhibited a three layer vertical structure, with (1) high and fairly uniform backscatter in the shallow cloud capped marine boundary layer; (2) moderate and highly variable backscatter in a deeper overlaying cloud pumped layer; and (3) low, regionally uniform, but seasonally and latitudinally variable backscatter in the middle and upper troposphere. The survey missions represent two isolated snapshots of a small portion of the global aerosol system. Consequently, Survey results can best be understood by synthesizing them with the more comprehensive GLOBE data base, which is being compiled at NASA-Marshall.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Washington, 4th Airborne Geoscience Workshop; p 107-110
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The focus of this effort is the development of a global-scale model of aerosol backscatter for laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS) design and performance studies. Background parameters are derived from aerosol data sets with global-scale spatial and/or temporal coverage, using objective statistical decomposition and/or a priori stratification based on supplementary data. Backscatter coefficients at the LAWS design wavelength are derived from background aerosol physical, chemical, and optical data, or from direct backscatter measurements at other wavelengths, using background conversion factors. Direct measurements of aerosol backscatter at 10.6 microns from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) and the Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) were selected. The RSRE backscatter data processing code were optimized under low backscatter conditions, performed detailed analyses of collocated intercomparisons between the two lidars, and assisted in the analysis of the long-term backscatter climatologies from the two lidars. Timely presentation of global backscattering experiment (GLOBE) research results to the global geophysical community is required.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA(MSFC FY88 Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review; p 75-78
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Measurements of CO2 aerosol backscatter coefficients and other aerosol physicochemical properties were obtained in remote Pacific free tropospheric airmasses at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. The experiment used an attenuated total reflection impactor (Johnson et al., 1983), a dispersive infrared spectrophotometer, and a high-resolution optical particle counter. Preliminary results suggest that sulfate compounds dominate background backscatter properties at CO2 wavelengths between 9 and 10 microns.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2004-12-04
    Description: The purpose was to propose a balanced program of aerosol backscatter research leading to the development of a global model of aerosol backscatter. Such a model is needed for feasibility studies and systems simulation studies for NASA's prospective satellite-based Doppler lidar wind measurement system. Systems of this kind measure the Doppler shift in the backscatter return from small atmospheric aerosol wind tracers (of order 1 micrometer diameter). The accuracy of the derived local wind estimates and the degree of global wind coverage for such a system are limited by the local availability and by the global scale distribution of natural aerosol particles. The discussions here refer primarily to backscatter model requirements at CO2 wavelengths, which have been selected for most of the Doppler lidar systems studies to date. Model requirements for other potential wavelengths would be similar.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center, Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements; p 239-241
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Since 1981 the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment and the Royal Aircraft Establishment, United Kindom, have made vertical and horizontal sounding measurements of aerosol backscatter coefficients at 10.6 microns, using an airborne continuous-wave-focused CO2 Doppler lidar, the Laser True Airspeed System (LATAS). In this paper, the heterodyne signal from the LATAS detector is spectrally analyzed. Then, in conjunction with aircraft flight parameters, the data are processed in a six-stage computer algorithm: set search window, search for peak signal, test peak signal, measure total signal, calculate signal-to-noise ratio, and calculate backscatter coefficient.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 96; 5293-529
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Aerosol/Lidar Science Group of the Remote Sensing Branch engages in experimental and theoretical studies of atmospheric aerosol scattering and atmospheric dynamics, emphasizing Doppler lidar as a primary tool. Activities include field and laboratory measurement and analysis efforts by in-house personnel, coordinated with similar efforts by university and government institutional researchers. The primary focus of activities related to understanding aerosol scattering is the GLObal Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) program. GLOBE was initiated by NASA in 1986 to support the engineering design, performance simulation, and science planning for the prospective NASA Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS). The most important GLOBE scientific result has been identified of a background aerosol mode with a surprisingly uniform backscatter mixing ratio (backscatter normalized by air density) throughout a deep tropospheric layer. The backscatter magnitude of the background mode evident from the MSFC CW lidar measurements is remarkably similar to that evident from ground-based backscatter profile climatologies obtained by JPL in Pasadena CA, NOAA/WPL in Boulder CO, and by the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment in the United Kingdom. Similar values for the background mode have been inferred from the conversion of in situ aerosol microphysical measurements to backscatter using Mie theory. Little seasonal or hemispheric variation is evident in the survey mission data, as opposed to large variation for clouds, aerosol plums, and the marine boundary layer. Additional features include: localized aerosol residues from dissipated clouds, occasional regions having mass concentrations of nanograms per cubic meter and very low backscatter, and aerosol plumes extending thousands of kilometers and several kilometers deep. Preliminary comparison with meteorological observations thus far indicate correlation between backscatter and water vapor under high humidity conditions. Limited intercomparisons with the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) limb extinction sounder shows differences in the troposphere, however, it should be noted that in general SAGE measurements have not yet been validated in the troposphere.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA(MSFC FY92 Earth Science and Applications Program Research Review; p 113-116
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: An airborne continuous-wave (CW) focused CO2 Doppler lidar and a ground-based pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar were to obtain seven pairs of comparative measurements of tropospheric aerosol backscatter profiles at 10.6-micron wavelength, near Denver, Colorado, during a 20-day period in July 1982. In regions of uniform backscatter, the two lidars show good agreement, with differences usually less than about 50 percent near 8-km altitude and less than a factor of 2 or 3 elsewhere but with the pulsed lidar often lower than the CW lidar. Near sharp backscatter gradients, the two lidars show poorer agreement, with the pulsed lidar usually higher than the CW lidar. Most discrepancies arise from a combination of atmospheric factors and instrument factors, particularly small-scale areal and temporal backscatter heterogeneity above the planetary boundary layer, unusual large-scale vertical backscatter structure in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and differences in the spatial resolution, detection threshold, and noise estimation for the two lidars.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 96; 5327-533
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